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Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated an interaction network of plant-pathogen effectors from two pathogens spanning the(More)
Closely related pathogens may differ dramatically in host range, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary basis for these differences remains unclear. In many Gram- negative bacteria, including the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, type III effectors (TTEs) are essential for pathogenicity, instrumental in structuring host range, and exhibit wide(More)
The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of(More)
Plants and animals maintain evolutionarily conserved innate immune systems that give rise to durable resistances. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) confers plant-wide immunity towards a broad spectrum of pathogens. Numerous studies have revealed that NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR) is a key regulator of SAR. Here, we review the(More)
Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens which threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant-pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15(More)
Currently, the Internet which provides a set of interconnected networks has made it possible for individuals and businesses to conduct business transactions electronically. Various internet-based business models have been realized including e-auction, e-shops, e-procurement, e-mall, virtual enterprises, and e-marketplaces, just to name a few. Instead of(More)
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are widely used by many multinational companies throughout the world. Recently, many institutions of higher learning have replaced their legacy systems to ERP systems as a means for integration advantages. Investments with this ERP system are representing the largest investment for institutions of higher learning.(More)