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PURPOSE In patients with progressive encephalopathy, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy (PEHO) syndrome, the pathophysiology underlying early progressive cerebellar and brainstem degeneration and severe epilepsy is unknown. Because insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has been shown significantly to promote survival of cerebellar neurons, we wanted to see if(More)
AIMS Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is used widely in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Since there is great interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of HCQ and chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6-catalysed pathways in vitro, we wished to study the interaction of HCQ with CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of(More)
Developing an argument based in theories of democratic consolidation and religious competition, and discussing the reasons for the secularist opposition to the government, this article analyses how government by a party rooted in moderate Islamism may affect Turkey’s peculiar secular democracy, development and external relations and how Muslims in the world(More)
Do political-Islamic elites need to be democrats for participation in democracy, how do their values compare to secular elites’, and how do their values change through participation and affect democratization itself? A comparative-systematic content analysis of three Islamic-conservative and two pro-secular Turkish newspapers over nine years shows that,(More)
Uniform neuropathological changes are described in eight cases of the progressive encephalopathy syndrome with edema, hypsarrhythmia and optic atrophy (PEHO syndrome). Two of the autopsied patients were sisters and two other cases were familial. Macroscopically, cerebral and pronounced cerebellar atrophy was seen, the essential histopathological lesions(More)
This article presents a systematic content analysis of three religious-conservative and two pro-secular newspapers in 1996–2004 in Turkey, and discusses some findings and their implications regarding elite values and democratization: considerable internal pluralism within both religious-conservative and pro-secular elites; general consensus on democracy but(More)
PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy, peripheral edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) is a neurodegenerative disorder first characterized in Finnish patients. Subsequent reports have occasionally identified cases of PEHO occurring in some other countries. We describe two Dutch children who represent the first reported cases with PEHO syndrome from(More)
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