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Here we explain the reasons why we have a bronchial tree with 23 levels ofbifurcation. Based on Bejan's Constructal Principle we found that the best oxygen access to the alveolar tissues as well as carbon dioxide removal is provided by a flow structure composed of ducts with 23 levels of bifurcation (bronchial tree) that ends with spaces (alveolar sacs)(More)
[Purpose] The effects of vitamin D on the circulating levels of IL-17 and IL-13 were investigated in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 without neuropathy, and healthy controls. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind controlled clinical study was performed, including70 type 2 diabetic patients with or without(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is explained in part by traditional cardiovascular risk factors; by uremia-specific factors; and by abnormalities of mineral metabolism, factors involved in its regulation, and in the vascular calcification process. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS In an(More)
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Reliable bonding between zirconia posts and composite resin core materials is difficult to achieve because of the smooth surface texture and lack of silica content of zirconia posts. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the short-term bond strength and durability between a(More)
Hemangioendotheliomas can express type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase and cause severe hypothyroidism. The risk of congenital malformations such as vertebral and cardiac abnormalities in infants of diabetic mothers is higher than in babies of healthy women. Here we report an infant of a diabetic mother with hypothyroidism caused by liver hemangioendothelioma.(More)
We aimed to investigate the preventive effect of Infliximab (IFX), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor, on bleomycin (BLC)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Rats were assigned into four groups as follows: I—BLC group, a single intra-tracheal BLC (2.5 mg/kg) was installed; II—control group, a single intra-tracheal saline was installed; III—IFX + BLC(More)
No consensus exists about whether contraceptives cause an increased risk of vaginitis, including vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). We investigated 495 women (252 who used contraceptives; 243 who did not) for the presence of VVC. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for five antifungal agents and for boric acid, and three virulence factors were also(More)
OBJECTIVE To show the efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy (etanercept) for treating endometriosis in an experimental model. DESIGN A randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study using rat endometriosis model. SETTING Experimental research center of Ankara Education and Research Hospital. ANIMAL(S) Twenty-two Wistar female rats. (More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrated that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a useful marker for the diagnosis of ischemic events. It was also recently demonstrated that IMA levels increase in the acute phase of cerebrovascular diseases. Yet the data regarding IMA levels in various types of cerebrovascular events are insufficient. The aim of this(More)