Murari Lal Das

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Since 1980, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has reemerged as a public health problem in lowland Nepal. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors. In univariate analyses among 84 cases and 105 controls, protective factors included sleeping on a bed or cot (Odds ratio [OR] 0.44, P < 0.01) and sleeping under a bed-net regularly (OR 0.23, P <(More)
BACKGROUND Miltefosine (MIL), the only oral drug for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is currently the first-line therapy in the VL elimination program of the Indian subcontinent. Given the paucity of anti-VL drugs and the looming threat of resistance, there is an obvious need for close monitoring of clinical efficacy of MIL. METHODS In a cohort study of 120(More)
Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is the first-line therapy for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south-eastern Nepal. Recent studies from the neighbouring state of Bihar, India, have shown a dramatic fall in cure rates with treatment failure occurring in up to 65% of VL patients treated with SSG. A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary-level hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in(More)
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) remains difficult in rural endemic areas and practical and reliable tests are badly needed. Two serological tests, the Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) and an rK39-antigen-based dipstick test, were compared to parasitological diagnosis in a group of 184 patients presenting at a tertiary care centre in(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal. DESIGN Paired cluster randomised controlled trial designed to detect a 50% reduction in incidence of Leishmania donovani infection. SETTING Villages in Muzaffarpur district(More)
The current control of Phebotomus argentipes (Annandale and Brunetti), the vector of Leishmania donovani (Laveran and Mesnil), on the Indian subcontinent is base on indoor residual spraying. The efficacy of this method depends, among other factors, on the timing and number of spraying rounds, which depend on the P. argentipes seasonality. To describe P.(More)
Reported are the results of a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about kala-azar of the inhabitants of two villages (Titaria and Haraincha) situated in terai (plain) areas of Nepal. The villagers had poor knowledge about the transmission of kala-azar, with most villagers perceiving that mosquitos, instead of sandflies, were responsible(More)
Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar), a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets(More)
On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from(More)