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Intrusion prospects in cloud paradigm are many and with high gains, may it be a bad user or a competitor of cloud client. Distributed model makes it vulnerable and prone to sophisticated distributed intrusion attacks like Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) and Cross Site Scripting (XSS). Confronting new implementation situations, traditional IDSs are not(More)
Multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported in hepatitis B patients who received sequential antiviral therapy. In vitro studies showed that HBV constructs with mutations resistant to lamivudine and adefovir have marked reduction in sensitivity to combination of lamivudine and adefovir, whereas constructs with mutations resistant to either(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Recent studies suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype B is associated with less active liver disease than HBV genotype C. The aim of our study was to determine if HBV genotype B is associated with higher rates of spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion compared with genotype C. METHODS A retrospective study using(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence and risk factors for adefovir-resistant HBV have not been clearly defined. AIMS To characterize the virologic response to adefovir, to determine the rate of adefovir resistance and to explore factors associated with initial virologic response (IVR) and adefovir resistance. METHODS All hepatitis B patients who received adefovir(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The susceptibility of adefovir-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants is only reduced by 3-10-fold in in vitro studies, suggesting that virologic breakthrough and clinical deterioration are unlikely. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course of patients with adefovir-resistant HBV infection. METHODS Testing for(More)
The goals of this retrospective study were to determine whether there is a threshold hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA value associated with spontaneous or antiviral therapy-related hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) clearance. We also investigated whether there is an HBV DNA value that can be used for differentiating inactive carriers from patients with(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Early detection of antiviral drug-resistant mutations enables prompt initiation of rescue therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of a new line probe assay in the detection of antiviral drug-resistant HBV mutations. METHODS One-hundred samples from 54 patients with virologic breakthrough during(More)
The INNO-LiPA HBV DR v2 assay is designed to detect hepatitis B virus mutations conveying resistance to lamivudine and adefovir. Our study confirms that this assay can simultaneously detect the presence of lamivudine and adefovir resistance mutations in clinical samples, has a high degree of concordance with sequencing, and can detect mutants earlier.
Previous studies reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can be detected in livers of patients who received transplants for hepatitis B despite the absence of serological markers of HBV recurrence. Quantification of HBV DNA was not performed and presence of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA was not analyzed in most studies. We(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Clinical studies have associated hepatitis B virus core promoter (CP) mutations with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The CP region overlaps with the HBV X (HBx) gene, which has been implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. The cyclin kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is an important regulator of cell cycle progression and(More)