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BACKGROUND Spodoptera litura (F.) causes enormous losses in many economically important crops. The genetics of insecticide resistance has been extensively studied in several insect pests, but there is a lack of information on S. litura. Therefore, the genetics and mechanisms of the resistance of S. litura to deltamethrin were investigated. RESULTS(More)
The toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate groups were investigated against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations collected for three consecutive years (2004-2006). For a chlorocyclodiene and pyrethroids tested, the resistance ratios compared with Lab-PK were in the(More)
BACKGROUND Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest worldwide, with over 112 host plants, and is exposed to insecticides throughout the year, resulting in the rapid development of resistance. Insecticide mixtures can delay the development of resistance more effectively than sequences or rotations. Cypermethrin, deltamethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos and(More)
Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County,(More)
BACKGROUND Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month(More)
BACKGROUND According to the World Reference Laboratory for FMD, a new subtype of FMDV serotype A was detected in Iran in 2005. This subtype was designated A/IRN/2005, and rapidly spread throughout Iran and moved westwards into Saudi Arabia and Turkey where it was initially detected from August 2005 and subsequently caused major disease problems in the(More)
Bioassays (at generation G1) with a newly collected field population of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Multan, Pakistan, showed resistance ratios of 15, 23, 37, and 16 for indoxacarb, spinosad, abamectin, and emamectin, respectively, compared with a laboratory susceptible population, Lab-PK. At G1, the field population was selected(More)
The data analysis of occupationally exposed medical workers in Nuclear Medicine (NM), Radiotherapy (RT) and Diagnostic Radiology (DR) at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), Pakistan is presented for the time interval (2007–2011). The whole-body exposure doses of the workers were measured by using the Film Badge Dosimetry technique. The(More)
Classification is an important task in data mining. Classification is about organizing data into relevant nodes in taxonomy. In scientific domain, classification of documents to predefined category (ies) is an important research problem and supports number of tasks such as: information retrieval, finding experts, recommender systems etc. In Computer(More)