Learn More
BACKGROUND Spodoptera litura (F.) causes enormous losses in many economically important crops. The genetics of insecticide resistance has been extensively studied in several insect pests, but there is a lack of information on S. litura. Therefore, the genetics and mechanisms of the resistance of S. litura to deltamethrin were investigated. RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest worldwide, with over 112 host plants, and is exposed to insecticides throughout the year, resulting in the rapid development of resistance. Insecticide mixtures can delay the development of resistance more effectively than sequences or rotations. Cypermethrin, deltamethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos and(More)
Insecticide resistance in Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been documented from all over the world and is often associated with reduced fitness. Fitness costs could delay the development of resistance depending upon the prevailing conditions. We were interested in establishing whether a field-collected population from Washington County,(More)
The toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate groups were investigated against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations collected for three consecutive years (2004-2006). For a chlorocyclodiene and pyrethroids tested, the resistance ratios compared with Lab-PK were in the(More)
According to the World Reference Laboratory for FMD, a new subtype of FMDV serotype A was detected in Iran in 2005. This subtype was designated A/IRN/2005, and rapidly spread throughout Iran and moved westwards into Saudi Arabia and Turkey where it was initially detected from August 2005 and subsequently caused major disease problems in the spring of 2006.(More)
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April(More)
Bioassays (at generation G1) with a newly collected field population of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Multan, Pakistan, showed resistance ratios of 15, 23, 37, and 16 for indoxacarb, spinosad, abamectin, and emamectin, respectively, compared with a laboratory susceptible population, Lab-PK. At G1, the field population was selected(More)
The data analysis of occupationally exposed medical workers in Nuclear Medicine (NM), Radiotherapy (RT) and Diagnostic Radiology (DR) at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), Pakistan is presented for the time interval (2007–2011). The whole-body exposure doses of the workers were measured by using the Film Badge Dosimetry technique. The(More)
Functional switches are often regulated by dynamic protein modifications. Assessing protein functions, in vivo, and their functional switches remains still a great challenge in this age of development. An alternative methodology based on in silico procedures may facilitate assessing the multifunctionality of proteins and, in addition, allow predicting(More)
Post-translational modification (PTM) of a protein is an important event in regulating cellular functions. An algorithm, MAPRes, has been developed for mining associations among PTM sites and the preferred amino acids in their vicinity. The algorithm has been implemented to O-glycosylation and O-phosphorylation data (phosphorylated/glycosylated(More)