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HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast cancer is a robust predictive marker for response to transtuzumab therapy. This study was undertaken to measure concordance between immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH for HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast tumors, as well as the presence of polysomy 17 and possible correlation with demographics and(More)
AIM Distribution of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotype was studied in Pakistani population and compared with the data reported for Caucasoid, Africans, Orientals and Arab populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS HLA class I and II polymorphisms in 1000 unrelated Pakistani individuals was studied using sequence-specific primers and polymerase chain(More)
Deficiency of 21 hydroxylase enzyme deficiency (21OH) activity accounts for 90% cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This results in deficient cortisol, increased ACTH, adrenal hyperplasia and increased adrenal androgen secretion. There is marked virilization in genetic females which is the hallmark of this disorder. Genetic heterogeneity in 21(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH. METHODS A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine BRCA1 status in breast carcinoma patients of Pakistani origin. STUDY DESIGN Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY The Oncology Clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between May 2005 and December 2009. METHODOLOGY Fifty three breast cancer patients based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis were(More)
Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in females, has an estimated 5-10% hereditary predisposition. BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene and is known to be responsible for breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancers running in families. In breast caner patients, several mutations in BRCA1 have been reported throughout the gene. This report describes(More)
Prostaglandins produced by Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme have been implicated to have a role in breast carcinogenesis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to COX-2 enzyme are reported to modulate its expression. The aim of the present study was to examine association of these SNPs to breast cancer risk in Pakistani patients. Methods In this(More)
β-Thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder in Pakistan, where more than 6000 affected children are born annually, and the carrier population is around 10 million. The objective was to study β-globin gene mutations in chorionic villous biopsy samples. Prenatal screening of 383 pregnant women between 2003 and 2010 was carried out using a panel of 13(More)
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