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In vertebrates, unfertilized eggs (or mature oocytes) are arrested at metaphase of meiosis II by a cytoplasmic activity called cytostatic factor (CSF). The classical Mos-MAPK pathway has long been implicated in CSF arrest of vertebrate eggs, but exactly how it exerts CSF activity remains unclear. Recently, Erp1 (also called Emi2), an inhibitor of the(More)
Erp1 (also called Emi2), an inhibitor of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase, is a key component of cytostatic factor (CSF) responsible for Meta-II arrest in vertebrate eggs. Reportedly, however, Erp1 is expressed even during meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes. If so, it is a puzzle why normally maturing oocytes cannot arrest at Meta-I. Here, we show that actually Erp1(More)
In vertebrates, unfertilized eggs are arrested at metaphase of meiosis II by Emi2, a direct inhibitor of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase. Two different ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, UbcH10 and Ube2S, work with the APC/C to target APC/C substrates for degradation. However, their possible roles and regulations in unfertilized/fertilized eggs are not known. Here(More)
We have investigated the mRNA expression of 2 human protein tyrosine phosphatases with sequence homology to cytoskeletal proteins, PTPH1 and PTPMEG. Northern-blot analysis of PTPH1 using poly (A)+ RNA from normal human colon tissue showed a low-abundance message of 4.3 kb. Reverse-transcriptase/polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) was therefore used to detect(More)
The mRNA expression levels of DCC gene, which is cloned from the deleted region of chromosome 18q in colorectal cancers and thought to be a tumor-suppressor gene, was evaluated in tissue specimens surgically resected from patients with colorectal cancer by RT-PCR. This method was chosen as the expression level of DCC mRNA is below the detectable level for(More)
The activity of lysine decarboxylase was studied in 3-day-old soybean (Glycine max (L.) Meer cv. Sakai) seedlings also in relation to light conditions. Lysine decarboxylase activity was mainly localized in the roots and to a lesser extent in the hypocotyls and was detectable in both the soluble and particulate fractions. The enzyme activity levels were(More)
Emi2 (also called Erp1) inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and thereby causes metaphase II arrest in unfertilized vertebrate eggs. Both the D-box and the zinc-binding region (ZBR) of Emi2 have been implicated in APC/C inhibition. However, it is not well known how Emi2 interacts with and hence inhibits the APC/C. Here we show that Emi2(More)
In vertebrates, unfertilized eggs are arrested at metaphase of meiosis II by Mos and Emi2, an inhibitor of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase. In Xenopus, Cdk1 phosphorylates Emi2 and both destabilizes and inactivates it, whereas Mos recruits PP2A phosphatase to antagonize the Cdk1 phosphorylation. However, how Cdk1 phosphorylation inhibits Emi2 is largely unknown.(More)
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