Muneer Mirza

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OBJECTIVE Mechanisms underlying mucosal transmission of HIV-1 are incompletely understood. We describe the anti-HIV-1 activity of human beta-defensins (hBD), small cationic molecules that provide protection at mucosal surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS HIV-1 induced expression of hBD-2 and -3 mRNA (but not that of hBD-1) 4- to 78-fold, respectively, above(More)
Multiple studies have described a reduction in the replicative fitness of HIV-1 isolates harboring mutations that confer resistance to antiretroviral drugs. Contradictory results, however, have been obtained depending on the methodology used in each study (Quinones-Mateu, M.E., Arts, E.J., 2002. Fitness of drug resistant HIV-I: methodology and clinical(More)
Despite numerous studies on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fitness, many key conceptual and technical questions are still unsolved. For example, the proper system to determine virus fitness of HIV-1 is still unknown. In this study, an assay was developed to estimate HIV-1 fitness based on growth competition experiments and TaqMan real-time PCR.(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common life-threatening infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and frequently occurs before the onset of severe immunodeficiency. Development of TB is associated with increased HIV type 1 (HIV-1) viral load, a fall in CD4 lymphocyte counts, and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to examine(More)
A human host offers a variety of microenvironments to the infecting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), resulting in various selective pressures, most of them directed against the envelope (env) gene. Therefore, it seems evident that the replicative capacity of the virus is largely related to viral entry. In this study we have used growth(More)
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