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Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor agonists administered peripherally increase colonic propulsive motility and fecal output in experimental animals. In addition, endogenous CRF-related peptides are found in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tissues, suggesting a local expression of CRF receptors. In the present study, we report the expression of(More)
Peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor ligands inhibit gastric acid secretion and emptying while stimulating gastric mucosal blood flow in rats. Endogenous CRF ligands are expressed in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tissues pointing to local expression of CRF receptors. We mapped the distribution of CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) and 2 (CRF2)(More)
Obestatin is a new peptide for which anorexigenic effects were recently reported in mice. We investigate whether peripheral injection of obestatin or co-injection with cholecystokinin (CCK) can modulate food intake, gastric motor function (intragastric pressure and emptying) and gastric vagal afferent activity in rodents. Obestatin (30, 100 and 300(More)
Intraperitoneal (i.p.) corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) induced a CRF(1) receptor-dependent stimulation of myenteric neurons and motility in the rat proximal colon. We characterize the colonic enteric nervous system response to CRF in conscious rats. Laser capture microdissection combined with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and(More)
The potencies and selectivity of peptide CRF antagonists is increased through structural constraints, suggesting that the resulting ligands assume distinct conformations when interacting with CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. To develop selective CRF receptor agonists, we have scanned the sequence -Gln-Ala-His-Ser-Asn-Arg- (residues 30-35 of(More)
Gastric and sphincter motility evoked by intravenous injection of CCK-8 were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Digital ultrasonomicrometry was used to monitor pyloric (PYL), antral (ANT), corpus (COR), and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) movements while simultaneously measuring intragastric pressure (IGP) and, in some experiments,(More)
Alterations of gastrointestinal (GI) motor function are part of the visceral responses to stress. Inhibition of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic motor function are the commonly encountered patterns induced by various stressors. Activation of brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors mediates stress-related inhibition of upper GI and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Diet has major effects on the intestinal microbiota, but the exact mechanisms that alter complex microbial communities have been difficult to elucidate. In addition to the direct influence that diet exerts on microbes, changes in microbiota composition and function can alter host functions such as gastrointestinal (GI) transit time, which(More)
1. The characterization of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and, more recently, the discovery of additional CRF-related ligands, urocortin 1, urocortin 2 and urocortin 3, the cloning of two distinct CRF receptor subtypes, 1 (CRF(1)) and 2 (CRF(2)), and the development of selective CRF receptor antagonists provided new insight to unravel the mechanisms(More)
The characterization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptors, and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists selective for the receptor subtypes have paved the way to the understanding of the biochemical coding of stress-related alterations of gut motor function. Reports have consistently established that central administration(More)