Lipid rafts are conceptualized as membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipid that serve as platforms for protein segregation and signaling. The properties of these domains in vivo are unclear. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to test if raft association affects a protein's ability to laterally diffuse large… (More)
Although lipid-dependent protein clustering in biomembranes mediates numerous functions, there is little consensus among membrane models on cluster organization or size. Here, we use influenza viral envelope protein hemagglutinin (HA(0)) to test the hypothesis that clustering results from proteins partitioning into preexisting, fluid-ordered "raft" domains,… (More)
Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a new paradigm of wireless network, offering unrestricted mobility without any underlying infrastructure such as base station or mobile switching centers. Basically ad hoc network is a collection of nodes communicating with each other by forming a multi-hop network. In a mobile ad hoc network, it is much more vulnerable… (More)
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So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6… (More)
In the present study, 20 sandalwood (Santalum album L.) genotypes were characterized using RAPD, ISSR and SSR markers. Twenty-five RAPD and twenty-one ISSR primers that generated clear and reproducible banding patterns amplified 225 and 208 bands, respectively, among 20 sandalwood genotypes. Out of 225, 181 (83.13 %) RAPD bands were polymorphic while out of… (More)
In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression… (More)