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Lipid rafts are conceptualized as membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipid that serve as platforms for protein segregation and signaling. The properties of these domains in vivo are unclear. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to test if raft association affects a protein's ability to laterally diffuse large(More)
Although lipid-dependent protein clustering in biomembranes mediates numerous functions, there is little consensus among membrane models on cluster organization or size. Here, we use influenza viral envelope protein hemagglutinin (HA(0)) to test the hypothesis that clustering results from proteins partitioning into preexisting, fluid-ordered "raft" domains,(More)
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[1] A modeling data set (meteorological forcing data, geographic information system data, and validation data) is presented for water years 1984 through 2008 for a snow‐dominated mountain catchment. The forcing data include hourly precipitation, wind speed and direction, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, and incoming solar(More)
Snow is an important natural reservoir that holds water on the landscape for release later in the season in western North America and other portions of the world. As air temperature increases with global climate change, the character of the generally established seasonal snowcover will be affected. To study the specific response to variable climate, a(More)
In this paper we have proposed an almost unbiased estimator using known value of some population parameter(s). Various existing estimators are shown particular members of the proposed estimator. Under simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) scheme the expressions for bias and mean square error (MSE) are derived. The study is extended to the two(More)
So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6(More)
Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale land models (as a component of Earth System Models, or ESMs) do not yet reflect the best(More)