Mujeeb U. Shad

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BACKGROUND Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in some adult and pediatric studies of unipolar major depressive disorder. It is not clear whether the smaller hippocampal volume precedes or is a consequence of the illness. Early-life adversity is associated with both smaller hippocampal volume and increased vulnerability to depressive disorder.(More)
Few studies have investigated the neurobiological basis of impaired insight in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia. However, the relationship between insight and specific prefrontally mediated cognitive functions suggests that insight deficits may be an expression of prefrontal cortical dysfunction. This study was designed to examine the relationship among(More)
Deficits in insight are multidimensional, and include symptom unawareness and misattribution. We and others have observed that these deficits may be related to a prefrontal dysfunction. However, few studies have examined the relationship between specific prefrontal sub-regions and the awareness and attributional dimensions of insight in schizophrenia. This(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment of coexisting medical comorbidities may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes among patients with bipolar disorder. We determined the prevalence of general medical conditions in a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in the Veterans Administration (VA). METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of(More)
Insight into illness has been identified as a clinically important phenomenon, in no small part due to an association with treatment-adherence. An increasing number of studies, but not all, have observed poor insight to be a reflection of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. A review of 34 published English-language studies found a significant number(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal activations in(More)
Impaired insight into illness is commonly observed across various psychiatric illnesses, but is most frequent in patients with schizophrenia. The clinical relevance and public health impact of poor insight is reflected by its close association with important clinical outcome measures, such as treatment non-adherence, lower psychosocial functioning, poor(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently begins during adolescence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the neurobiology of adolescent depression. A better understanding of the neurobiology will be helpful in developing more effective preventive and treatment interventions for this highly(More)
In animal models, corticosterone elevations are associated with hippocampal changes that can be prevented with phenytoin. In humans, Cushing's syndrome and long-term prescription corticosteroid use are associated with a reduction in the hippocampal volume. However, little is known about the effects of short-term corticosteroid administration on the(More)
It is widely accepted that cholinergic activity at muscarinic receptors is required to maintain cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Memory domains are especially impaired in schizophrenia, which may explain difficulties in psychosocial rehabilitation of individuals with this illness. However, little is known about the mechanism of this(More)