Muhammed Azlan Hussain

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Formamide-induced osmotic shock has been used to detubulate isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes (i.e., disrupt the surface membrane-T tubule junction). Cell volume, calculated from cell length and width, rapidly decreased and increased upon application and removal of formamide, respectively. After treatment with formamide, membrane capacitance decreased(More)
1. The effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation on the relationship between the intracellular Ca2+ transient and the amplitude of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) has been investigated in ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts. Intracellular [Ca2+] was monitored using fura-2 during field stimulation and while membrane potential was controlled using voltage(More)
Dissociated single fibers from the mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle were used in patch clamp experiments to investigate the mechanisms of activation and inactivation of KATP in mammalian skeletal muscle. Spontaneous rundown of channel activity, in many excised patches, occurred gradually over a period of 10–20 min. Application of 1.0 mm free-Ca2+(More)
The mechanisms underlying the accelerated decline of the intracellular Ca2+ transient that occurs in cardiac muscle when stimulation rate is increased have been investigated in ventricular myocytes from rat hearts. Increasing stimulation rate from 0.1 to 0.5 and 1 Hz decreased the time taken for the Ca2+ transient to decline from its peak to 50% of its peak(More)
Contractile activation of detrusor smooth muscle is initiated by the release of transmitters from motor nerves. Acetylcholine is a ubiquitous transmitter, as also is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in many animal bladders and in people from several patient groups with pathological bladder function. In recent years there has been progress in explaining several(More)
The effect of Cs+ on the function of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has been investigated in skinned cardiac myocytes. Isolated rat ventricular myocytes were permeabilized using saponin and then perfused with a solution containing 150 nmol/l Ca2+ and 10 micromol/l fura 2. Fura 2 fluorescence from the skinned cell was monitored to assess SR Ca2+(More)
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an endocrine hormone that mediates most of the effects of pituitary growth hormone. Other important regulatory factors of serum IGF I levels are insulin and nutrition. Most of the circulating IGF I is bound to three IGF binding proteins (BP), mostly IGFBP-3, BP-2 and BP-1. IGF I is also produced by many cells in the(More)
Habituated callus tissues derived from leaf explants of Lathyrus sativus L. (grass pea) were cultured under different environmental conditions such as drought, salinity and deficiency or oversupply of micronutrients. The biosynthesis of the neuro-excitatory β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) was induced by feeding the precursor BIA,(More)
Process stability of a PID control loop depends upon the proportional, integral and derivative constants used. Using the conventional tangent method and the proper tuning rule, the optimum P, I and D can be estimated. With this optimum P, I and D set into the controller, an optimum response is normally achieved. A new reformulation of the tangent method is(More)
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