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Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family "Picobirnaviridae." PBVs have(More)
BACKGROUND Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious viral disease of many avian species particularly domestic poultry, and is responsible for devastating outbreaks in the poultry industries around the globe. In spite of its importance and endemicity in Southern Asia, data on the genetic nature of the viruses and epizootiological information of the disease is scarce. In(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most deadly diseases of poultry around the globe. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are being reported regularly in wild captive, rural and commercial poultry flocks. Though, efforts have been made to characterize the causative agent in some of parts of the country, the genetic nature of strains(More)
Genetic changes in avian influenza viruses influence their infectivity, virulence and transmission. Recently we identified a novel genotype of H9N2 viruses in widespread circulation in poultry in Pakistan that contained polymerases (PB2, PB1 and PA) and non-structural (NS) gene segments identical to highly pathogenic H7N3 viruses. Here, we investigated the(More)
Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) was isolated from an acute and highly contagious outbreak in peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan. A velogenic neurotropic form of APMV-1 caused a 100% case fatality rate and killed 190 peacocks within a week. Biological and serological characterizations showed features of a velogenic strain of(More)
We report the complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) isolated from an acute and highly contagious outbreak in pheasants (Pucrasia macrolopha) in Lahore, Pakistan. Biological and serological characterization showed a velogenic strain of APMV-1, which was further confirmed by the sequence analysis of the cleavage site in the fusion(More)
The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were divided into 5 treatment groups and fed a corn-soybean diet(More)
Several outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) caused by H9N2 subtype, have been reported in the poultry industry during 1990 around the globe. Currently, H9N2 are endemic in the large area of Middle and Far East, including Pakistan. Since H9N2 AI viruses are sporadically reported from humans, extensive incidence of H9N2 in poultry imposes a great risk for human(More)
Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The prevalence of chronic HCV infections in Pakistan is about 5%, with most individuals being infected with HCV genotype 3a. Data on HCV genotypes distribution across various districts of the country are scarce. One example is district Mardan from where such data is(More)