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Active resistance to viruses is afforded by plant disease resistance (R) genes, which encode proteins with nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Upon recognition of pathogen-derived elicitors, these NB-LRR proteins are thought to initiate a number of signaling pathways that lead to pathogen restriction. However, little is known(More)
Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion(More)
Betasatellites are symptom-modulating DNA satellites that are associated with the majority of monopartite begomoviruses in the Old World. Betasatellites show both geographical and host-specific relatedness; those isolated from malvaceous hosts form one group and those isolated from non-malvaceous hosts form the second group. Real-time PCR based estimation(More)
BACKGROUND Plant production is severely affected by biotic and abiotic stresses R-genes exhibit resistance against a range of diseases and pathogens in plants. The nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of R-genes is the most comprehensively studied in terms of sequence evolution and genome distribution. The differential response(More)
The cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite encodes an essential pathogenicity determinant involved in induction of disease symptoms. We have shown recently that a recombinant betasatellite with a satellite conserved region derived from the tomato leaf curl betasatellite, is prevalent in the Punjab province and is associated with the breakdown of resistance(More)
This retrospective study of radioactive needle implants at the Institute of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital serves as an audit of our practice as well as a demonstration of the usefulness of this technique of brachytherapy. A variety of tumour sites were implanted, of which over two-thirds involved the tongue and buccal mucosa. Although(More)
Plasma gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in normal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. No difference in enzyme activities was observed in the three major races of the Malaysian population, i.e. Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. However, plasma gamma-GT,(More)
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