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Radio spectrum is the most valuable resource in wireless communication. The cognitive radio and cognitive based networking are transforming the static spectrum allocation based communication systems in to dynamic spectrum allocation. Cognitive radios are intelligent devices with ability to sense environmental conditions and can change its parameters(More)
OBJECTIVE To asses the presence of steatosis and other histological changes in patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS Liver biopsy samples were reviewed for presence of steatosis, its degree and other histological changes of hepatitis C including necro-inflammatory score, fibrosis grade and these changes were correlated with liver function tests. (More)
BACKGROUND Conventional collar incision closure in thyroid and parathyroid surgery involves the insertion of an epidermal layer of subcutaneous absorbable sutures that are reinforced by a deep layer of sutures. Adhesive strips offer an alternative method to close the epidermal layer. The aim of this study was to compare adhesive strip closure with(More)
This paper proposes a downlink resource scheduling technique for maximized throughput with reduced Block Error Ratio and improved fairness among different users across the cellular region. Resources are allocated to users on the basis of Channel Quality Indicator feedback values in a way that the data rates are increased without compromising on Block Error(More)
Cognitive radio based network enables oppor-tunistic dynamic spectrum access by sensing, adopting and utilizing the unused portion of licensed spectrum bands. Cognitive radio is intelligent enough to adapt the communication parameters of the unused licensed spectrum. Spectrum sensing is one of the most important tasks of the cogni-tive radio cycle. In this(More)
—The idea of software defined radio was proposed by J. Mittola. It was a radio designed on programmable chips. The idea of SDR was further enhanced in the form of Cognitive radios. It was proposed by the J.Mittola for the solution of the Spectrum Scarcity problem. Cognitive Radio based networks have the two types of users. One type of the users is known as(More)
the problem of spectrum scarcity becomes with the new devices and applications of wireless communication. The solution of this problem is the cognitive radio Networks. This paper presents the different scheduling techniques for the secondary user and evaluated the results of maximum throughput and optimal resource utilization based on evaluation results of(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish a polymerase chain reaction method based on 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene for the detection of plasmodium deoxyribonucleic acid in patients suffering from malaria symptoms. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to October 2014 in district Quetta of Pakistan's Balochistan province. Blood samples(More)
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