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BACKGROUND Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution is a growing health problem for urban populations in emerging economies. The present study examines the (cross-sectional) relation between blood pressure and particulate air pollution in schoolchildren of Lahore (Pakistan). METHODS We recruited a sample of 8-12 year-old children (mean age 9.9 years; 45% girls) from two schools in(More)
BACKGROUND A considerable part of the worldwide production of surgical instruments takes place in Sialkot, Pakistan. Many children work in hazardous conditions in this industry. OBJECTIVE We investigated exposure to metals and possible health effects among children working in surgical instruments manufacturing units compared with schoolchildren from the(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion (as an index of lifetime(More)
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