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Burkholderia mallei (Bm), the causative agent of the predominately equine disease glanders, is a genetically uniform species that is very closely related to the much more diverse species Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), an opportunistic human pathogen and the primary cause of melioidosis. To gain insight into the relative lack of genetic diversity within Bm,(More)
Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332(More)
This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples(More)
BACKGROUND To identify the causative variants of achromatopsia (ACHM) in four Pakistani families presenting autosomal recessive ACHM. METHODS Four families (50, 55, 70 and 74) exhibiting features of achromatopsia were subjected to homozygosity mapping with STS markers flanking known ACHM loci. Mutation screening was done for two of the families linked to(More)
The Asiatic or Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) is an endangered species. In South Asian countries, captive tamed Himalayan bears are commonly used by roving bear-charmers to entertain the people in rural and urban areas. In captivity, this species confronts several psychophysical traumas and communicable diseases, which are prevalent in other(More)
We developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray assay based on genetic markers for the accurate identification and differentiation of Burkholderia (B.) mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, the agents of glanders and melioidosis, respectively. These two agents were clearly identified using at least 4 independent genetic markers including 16S rRNA gene,(More)
Over-the-counter availability of drugs in developing countries poses the risk of their abuse and overdosing in animals by the owners. This report describes ivermectin toxicosis and its treatment with neostigmine methylsulfate in 2 kittens and an adult cat that had been massively overdosed by their owners. Of two 4-w-old 300 g kittens, one was injected with(More)
The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally(More)
Glanders or farcy, caused by Burkholderia mallei, is an infectious and zoonotic disease of solipeds. Horses, donkeys and mules are the only known natural reservoir of B. mallei. Although glanders has been eradicated from most countries, it has regained the status of a re-emerging disease because of the numerous recent outbreaks. Pre-symptomatic or carrier(More)
The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of ivermectin administration on cell mediated (CMI) and humoral immunity (HI) of rabbits. CMI against dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in rabbits was determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity and macrophage engulfment assay (MEA), respectively; whereas, HI to Pasteurella(More)