Muhammad Safdar

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The most common malignancy in women is breast cancer. Drug resistance in the treatment of cancer still remains a major clinical concern. Resistance to tamoxifen is seen in half of the recurrences in breast cancer. The anti-estrogen tamoxifen gains agonistic property by transactivating ERα. PAK1-mediated phosphorylation of serine 305 (S305) of ERα leads to(More)
Caspases are important initiators and most well-known finishers of apoptosis. By changing the death propagation homeostatic equilibrium, their different expression patterns might trigger the progression of hazardous diseases like cancer. miR-221 is an oncogenic miRNA. It is known to have both anti-angiogenic and angiogenic effect. The aim of this work was(More)
EvaGreen multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMRT-PCR) was designed for an assay that can join the advantages of multiplex PCR and real-time PCR to recognize animal genes more quickly in pet foods. EMRT-PCR based on melting temperatures discrimination by using EvaGreen fluorescence dye was developed for the analysis of pork and poultry in pet(More)
A duplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis, using the EvaGreen fluorescence dye, was developed for rapid and reliable identification of bovine and caprine in ruminant feeds. The method merges the use of bovine (Bos taurus) and caprine (Capra hircus) specific primers that amplify small fragments (bovine 96 bp and caprine 142 bp) of the(More)
A microfluidic bioreactor with an easy to fabricate nano-plasmonic surface is demonstrated for studies of biofilms and their precursor materials via Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The system uses a novel design to induce sheath flow confinement of a sodium citrate biofilm precursor stream against the SERS imaging surface to measure spatial(More)
A tetraplex PCR assay was developed for a rapid and reliable identification of horse, soybean, poultry, and pork species in sausages simultaneously. The method merges the use of horse (Equus caballus), soybean (Glycine max), poultry (Gallus gallus), and pork (Sus scrofa) specific primers that amplify small fragments (horse; 85bp, soybean; 100bp, poultry;(More)
A hexaplex-conventional PCR assay was developed for identification of five meat and one plant species origins in foodstuffs simultaneously. The method merges the use of horse (Equus caballus), soybean (Glycine max), sheep (Ovis aries), poultry (Meleagris meleagris), pork (Sus scrofa), and cow (Bos taurus) specific primers that amplify fragments (horse; 85(More)
We present a microfluidic device capable of patterning linear biofilm formations using a flow templating approach. We describe the design considerations and fabrication methodology of a two level flow-templating micro-bioreactor (FT-μBR), which generates a biofilm growth stream surrounded on 3 sides by a growth inhibiting confinement stream. Through a(More)
We build on the concept of hot intrusion embossing to develop a one-step fabrication method for thermoplastic microfluidic channels containing integrated three-dimensional features. This was accomplished with simple, rapid-to-fabricate imprint templates containing microcavities that locally control the intrusion of heated thermoplastic based on their(More)
Computer is the most significant and pervasive technological innovation of contemporary world and is certainly the eighth wonder of the world. Main purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for distance learners. It was an experimental study and 120 (M=60+FM=60) students of class XII (Pre-engineering)(More)