Muhammad Saeed Khan

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Free Space Optics (FSO) is now a well established access technology, better known for its robustness in transmitting large data volumes in an energy efficient manner. However the BER performance of a FSO ground-link is adversely affected by cloud coverage, harsh weather conditions, and atmospheric turbulence. Fog, clouds and dry snow play a detrimental role(More)
Optical wireless links offer gigabit per second data rates and low system complexity. For ground-space and or terrestrial communication scenarios, these links suffer from atmospheric loss mainly due to fog, scintillation and precipitation. We investigate here the impact of fog, rain and snow effects and evaluate their performance on the basis of attenuation(More)
Wireless Optical Communication Links (OCL), or Free Space Optics (FSO) links involving optical ground stations (OGS) are highly influenced by the earth atmosphere due to the interaction of the optical wave with particles of different size and shape. Fog, clouds, rain and snow cause significant signal attenuation thus limiting the performance of OCL. In this(More)
The system design of an integrated microwave imaging radar for the diagnostic screening of breasts cancer is presented. A custom integrated circuit implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology and a pair of patch antennas realized on a planar laminate are proposed as the basic module of the imaging antenna array. The radar operates on the broad frequency range(More)
The major purpose of the study was to explore the impact of modular teaching on the achievements of students. The study was experimental type. Equivalent group study design was used. The collected data of both groups were analyzed and interpreted using mean, standard deviation and t-test, and conclusions were drawn. The results of the study were in the(More)
Objective: The primary aim of this study was the early detection and treatment of hypothyroidism in neonates. This paper describes the determination of cord blood serum T4 and TSH levels, their mean levels, reference ranges and interrelationship. Design: Retrospective analysis of serum T4 and TSH levels in 1153 cord blood samples collected and analyzed(More)
A technique of modeling the fog droplet size distributions using exponential distribution has been demonstrated. In order to compute the two parameters of the exponential distribution, two experimental measurements are required, which are the measurement of liquid water content (LWC) and the optical attenuations at visible wavelength. The two measurements(More)
The use of graphene-based conductors (GBC) as a transmission line (TL) is presented as a conventional TL possessing right-handed (RH) nature and its coupling characteristics are investigated. In order to verify and demonstrate the wave propagation of a GBC TL, a 120 mm long 50 Ω TL was fabricated and tested. Performance of the single GBC TL was then(More)