Muhammad Rafi

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Research is a continuous phenomenon. It is recursive in nature. Every research is based on some earlier research outcome. A general approach in reviewing the literature for a problem is to categorize earlier work for the same problem as positive and negative citations. In this paper, we propose a novel automated technique, which classifies whether an(More)
The activity of labeling of documents according to their content is known as text categorization. Many experiments have been carried out to enhance text categorization by adding background knowledge to the document using knowledge repositories like Word Net, Open Project Directory (OPD), Wikipedia and Wikitology. In our previous work, we have carried out(More)
A major computational burden, while performing document clustering, is the calculation of similarity measure between a pair of documents. Similarity measure is a function that assigns a real number between 0 and 1 to a pair of documents, depending upon the degree of similarity between them. A value of zero means that the documents are completely dissimilar(More)
The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan(More)
The process of text categorization assigns labels or categories to each text document according to the semantic content of the document. The traditional approaches to text categorization used features from the text like: words, phrases, and concepts hierarchies to represent and reduce the dimensionality of the documents. Recently, researchers addressed this(More)
Blogs-Online digital diary like application on web 2.0 has opened new and easy way to voice opinion, thoughts, and like-dislike of every Internet user to the World. Blogosphere has no doubt the largest user-generated content repository full of knowledge. The potential of this knowledge is still to be explored. Knowledge discovery from this new genre is(More)
This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides,(More)