Muhammad Khizar Rafiq

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BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Neuromuscular respiratory failure is the commonest cause of death, usually within two to five years of the disease onset. Supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation may improve survival and quality of life. This is the first(More)
A major problem faced by patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in respiratory failure is the inability to cough effectively. Forty eligible ALS patients were randomized to the breath-stacking technique using a lung volume recruitment bag (n = 21) or mechanical insufflator-exsufflator MI-E (n = 19) and followed up at three-monthly intervals for(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition for which there is no single diagnostic test or biomarker. The level of the creatine kinase (CK) enzyme in serum may be mild to moderately elevated in some patients with ALS, the precise cause of which and its behaviour with disease progression is unknown. The(More)
Patients with ALS may have insufficientenergy substrates, due to dysphagia and hypermetabolism, which adversely affects the prognosis. Hyperlipidaemia has been reported to be associated with ALS and to represent a significant prognostic factor for survival in ALS. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of dyslipidaemia among a cohort of(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition, respiratory failure being the commonest cause of death. Quality of life and survival can be improved by supporting respiratory function with non-invasive ventilation. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring is a non-invasive method of measuring arterial carbon dioxide levels(More)
Motor neurone disease is a neurodegenerative condition with a significant morbidity and shortened life expectancy. Hypoventilatory respiratory failure is the most common cause of death and respiratory function significantly predicts both survival and quality of life in patients with motor neurone disease. Accordingly, supporting and maintaining respiratory(More)
BACKGROUND Lithium has neuroprotective effects in cell and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and a small pilot study in patients with ALS showed a significant effect of lithium on survival. We aimed to assess whether lithium improves survival in patients with ALS. METHODS The lithium carbonate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (LiCALS)(More)