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Since the leaf apoplast is a primary habitat for many plant pathogens, apoplastic proteins are potent, ancient targets for apoplastic effectors secreted by plant pathogens. So far, however, only a few apoplastic effector targets have been identified and characterized. Here, we discovered that the papain-like cysteine protease C14 is a new common target of(More)
In response to pathogen attack, plant cells secrete antimicrobial molecules at the site of infection. However, how plant pathogens interfere with defense-related focal secretion remains poorly known. Here we show that the host-translocated RXLR-type effector protein AVRblb2 of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans focally accumulates(More)
Plants lack the seemingly unlimited receptor diversity of a somatic adaptive immune system as found in vertebrates and rely on only a relatively small set of innate immune receptors to resist a myriad of pathogens. Here, we show that disease-resistant tomato plants use an efficient mechanism to leverage the limited nonself recognition capacity of their(More)
Refactoring is a technique to make a computer program more readable and maintainable. A bad smell is an indication of some setback in the code, which requires refactoring to deal with. Many tools are available for detection and removal of these code smells. These tools vary greatly in detection methodologies and acquire different competencies. In this work,(More)
Current models of plant-pathogen interactions stipulate that pathogens secrete effector proteins that disable plant defense components known as virulence targets. Occasionally, the perturbations caused by these effectors trigger innate immunity via plant disease resistance proteins as described by the "guard hypothesis." This model is nicely illustrated by(More)
Nanotechnology has revolutionized the world through introduction of a unique class of materials and consumer products in many arenas. It has led to production of innovative materials and devices. Despite of their unique advantages and applications in domestic and industrial sectors, use of materials with dimensions in nanometers has raised the issue of(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon is well thought-out as the key defence against all infections including HCV. The only treatment for HCV infection is pegylated interferon alpha (IFN-α) but unluckily more than half of the infected individuals do not act in response to the cure and become chronic HCV carriers. The mechanism how HCV induce interferon resistance is still(More)
This communication reports an experimental investigation of integrated CO2 bio-conversion, wastewater treatment, and biomass production by microalgae cultivation. In this regard, the effects of CO2 concentrations on mixotrophic growth kinetics of a microalgae strain (Nannochloropsis oculata) are conducted in a semi-batch photobioreactor. The concentration(More)
Synthetic hexaploid (SH) wheat derived from crossing tetraploid durum wheat and diploid Aegilops tauschii provide germplasm for wheat improvement as the conventional wheat varieties possess very low genetic diversity. This study aims to identify diverse SH lines which can be used in breeding programs for transferring the desired traits into bread wheat. The(More)
Pakistan covers a key geographic area in human history, being both part of the Indus River region that acted as one of the cradles of civilization and as a link between Western Eurasia and Eastern Asia. This region is inhabited by a number of distinct ethnic groups, the largest being the Punjabi, Pathan (Pakhtuns), Sindhi, and Baloch. We analyzed the first(More)