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With the advancements of acoustic modem technology that supports better data rates with reliable communications, current research focuses on algorithms those can support such technology in a better way. During the last two decades, many protocols suggested in order to handle the adverse environment of underwater communications. This continued research(More)
Providing an efficient communication for the underwater wireless sensor networks is a significant problem due to the unique characteristics of such environments. Radio signal cannot propagate well in deep water, and we have to replace this with the acoustic channel. This replacement results in many issues like high latency due to less propagation speeds,(More)
Keywords: Underwater sensor networks Underwater acoustic communications Routing protocols Resource-aware routing Classification of protocols a b s t r a c t Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are finding different applications for offshore exploration and ocean monitoring. In most of these applications, the network consists of significant number of(More)
During the last couple of decades Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) have attracted more attention for ocean monitoring systems. Due to adverse environment, UWSN face many problems like bandwidth limitations, high error probability, node movements and 3-dimensional space and with such challenges, we need a robust and scalable architecture for(More)
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) provide a solution for monitoring those unstable environments which is considered frightening for human presence. These networks are mostly formed by acoustic sensor nodes and surface sinks called buoys that are connected to any onshore control centre. The reliable delivery of sensed data to the surface sink is a(More)
With the advancements of acoustic modem technology that supports better data rates with reliable communications, current research focuses on algorithms those can support such technology in a better way. During the last two decades, many protocols suggested in order to handle the adverse environment of underwater communications. This continued research(More)