Learn More
The chemotherapeutic use of cisplatin is limited by its severe side effects. In this study, by conducting different omics data analyses, we demonstrated that cisplatin induces cell death in a proximal tubular cell line by suppressing glycolysis- and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/mitochondria-related genes. Furthermore, analysis of the urine from(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pivotal components of the innate immune response, which is responsible for eradicating invading microorganisms through the induction of inflammatory molecules. These receptors are also involved in responding to harmful endogenous molecules and have crucial roles in the activation of the innate immune system and shaping the(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has been implicated in the inflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Such inflammatory signals mediate complex interactions between commensal bacteria and TLRs and are required for IEC proliferation, immune response, repair, and homeostasis. The upregulation of certain TLRs in colorectal cancer (CRC)(More)
TLR4 in complex with MD2 senses the presence of lipid A (LA) and initiates a signaling cascade that curb the infection. This complex is evolutionarily conserved and can initiate the immune system in response to a variety of LAs. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation (25 ns) was performed to elucidate the differential behavior of TLR4/MD2 complex in(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced by inflammatory responses, cell death, cytokines, and oxidative stress conditions. ATF3 is a negative regulator in the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway. The principal molecule in this pathway is nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) that translocates into the nucleus to initiate the transcription of(More)
The high-risk human papillomavirus E6 (hrHPV E6) protein has been widely studied due to its implication in cervical cancer. In response to viral threat, activated kinases phosphorylate the IRF3 autoinhibitory domain, inducing type1 interferon production. HPV circumvents the antiviral response through the possible E6 interaction with IRF3 and abrogates p53's(More)
Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a vital innate immune receptor present on cell surfaces, initiates a signaling cascade during danger and bacterial intrusion. TLR4 needs to form a stable hexamer complex, which is necessary to dimerize the cytoplasmic domain. However, D299G and T399I polymorphism may abrogate the stability of the complex, leading to compromised(More)
Opioids are considered the gold standard therapy for pain. However, TLR-dependent negative effects in analgesia have highlighted the complexities in the pharmacodynamics of opioids. While successive studies have reported that morphine and Morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) activate the TLR4 pathway, the structural details of this mechanism are lacking. Here, we(More)
Etoposide (ETO) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that inhibits topoisomerase II activity, thereby leading to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. However, ETO has limited application due to its side effects on normal organs, especially the kidney. Here, we report the mechanism of ETO-induced cytotoxicity progression in human kidney proximal tubule (HK-2)(More)