Muhammad Amir Yunus

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UNLABELLED All members of the Caliciviridae family of viruses produce a subgenomic RNA during infection. The subgenomic RNA typically encodes only the major and minor capsid proteins, but in murine norovirus (MNV), the subgenomic RNA also encodes the VF1 protein, which functions to suppress host innate immune responses. To date, the mechanism of norovirus(More)
Using a cell-based assay for RNA synthesis by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of noroviruses, we previously observed that VP1, the major structural protein of the human GII.4 norovirus, enhanced the GII.4 RdRp activity but not that of the related murine norovirus (MNV) or other unrelated RNA viruses (C. V. Subba-Reddy, I. Goodfellow, and C. C. Kao,(More)
Human noroviruses are responsible for most cases of human gastroenteritis (GE) worldwide and are recurrent problem in environments where close person-to-person contact cannot be avoided (1, 2). During the last few years an increase in the incidence of outbreaks in hospitals has been reported, causing significant disruptions to their operational capacity as(More)
Murine norovirus (MNV), identified in 2003, is the only norovirus which replicates efficiently in tissue culture and as a result has been used extensively as a model for human noroviruses, a major cause of acute gastroenteritis. The current report describes the generation of a new approach to reverse genetics recovery of genetically defined MNV that relies(More)
BACKGROUND A major characteristic of Candida biofilm cells that differentiates them from free-floating cells is their high tolerance to antifungal drugs. This high resistance is attributed to particular biofilm properties, including the accumulation of extrapolymeric substances, morphogenetic switching, and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVES This study(More)
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