Muhammad Ali Shah

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Program verification is concerned with proving that a program is correct and adheres to a given specification. Testing a program, in contrast, means to search for a witness that the program is incorrect. In the present paper, we use a program logic for Java to prove the in-correctness of programs. We show that this approach, carried out in a sequent(More)
This study compares Escherichia coli pathotypes circulating among children in Pakistan during the floods of 2010 and 2011 and from sporadic cases outside flood affected areas. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction 115 of 205 stool samples (56.29%) were positive for diarrheagenic E. coli from specimens taken during the floods compared with 50 of 400(More)
Nanotechnology is the development of engineered devices or materials at the micro molecular level in the nanometer range. The properties of nanoparticles that these could be designed, manufactured and introduced into the human body, have led to its application in various fields of medicine. They are being used for construction of diagnostic devices,(More)
In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from(More)
The study was conducted to investigate the role of aflatoxin on the infectivity and transmissibility of H9N2 AI virus. The experiment was performed on 80 non-vaccinated turkeys, divided into 4 groups of 20 birds each. Group A was kept as non-infected and a non-treated negative control; Group B was inoculated intratracheally with H9N2 AI virus (1 × 10(7)(More)
A rapid, ultrasensitive and economical Pseudorabies virus (PRV) detection system based on magnetic beads (MBs) and chemiluminescence was developed in this paper. The carboxyl functionalized MBs (MBs-COOH) were covalently coupled with aminated DNA probes for capturing PRV biotinylated amplicon, the product of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Agarose gel(More)
For reducing the steric hindrance and nonspecific binding of the target DNA, the dextran was used as molecular arms to be immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Magnetic separation was used in preparation of dextran-MNPs (DMNPs). Aspartic acid and aminated DNA probe were successively modified on the dextran immobilized on the surface(More)
Hepatitis C is one of the foremost challenging diseases all over the world. No vaccine has been developed, yet against Hepatitis C virus (HCV). This is partly due to the high mutation rate in the HCV genome, which generates new genotypes and sub genotypes. A mass of efforts have been devoted for the development of an efficient vaccine against HCV. DNA(More)
It has been observed that with ever changing technologies need for different software methodologies also evolved. Different methodologies are actually developed to cater the needs of different software development technologies. These methodologies are so technology specific that it becomes a hazard whenever these are applied as generic methodologies for all(More)
Nanomaterials are utilized in a wide array of end user products such as pharmaceuticals, electronics, clothes and cosmetic products. Due to its size (< 100 nm), nanoparticles have the propensity to enter through the airway and skin, making its path perilous with the potential to cause damages of varying severity. Once within the body, these particles have(More)