Muhamad Shahbani Abu Bakar

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Neurodegenerative causes of blindness and deafness possess a major challenge in their clinical management as proper treatment guidelines have not yet been found. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been established as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders including hearing and visual loss. Unfortunately, the blood-retinal barrier(More)
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. It is potentially fatal and highly contagious disease. Herbivores are the natural host. Human acquire the disease incidentally by contact with infected animal or animal products. In the 18th century an epidemic destroyed approximately half of the sheep in Europe. In 1900 human inhalational anthrax(More)
Ant colony optimization is one of the most successful examples of swarm intelligent systems. The exploration and exploitation are the main mechanisms in controlling search within the ACO. Reactive search is a framework for automating the exploration and exploitation in stochastic algorithms. Restarting the search with the aid of memorizing the search(More)
Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic search method for solving NP-hard problems. The exploration versus exploitation dilemma rises in ACO search. Reactive max-min ant system algorithm is a recent proposition to automate the exploration and exploitation. It memorizes the search regions in terms of reactive heuristics to be harnessed after restart,(More)
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