Mubina Agboatwalla

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BACKGROUND More than 3.5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea. METHODS In adjoining squatter settlements in(More)
CONTEXT Washing hands with soap prevents diarrhea, but children at the highest risk of death from diarrhea are younger than 1 year, too young to wash their own hands. Previous studies lacked sufficient power to assess the impact of household handwashing on diarrhea in infants. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of promoting household handwashing with soap(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap. METHODS The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned(More)
OBJECTIVES To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre,(More)
OBJECTIVE To pilot test an inexpensive, home-based water decontamination and storage system in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi. METHODS Fifty households received a 20-L plastic water storage vessel with a high-quality spout and a regular supply of diluted hypochlorite solution. Twenty-five control households were recruited. Water samples were(More)
We investigated gender differences in knowledge of and attitude towards tuberculosis (TB) in urban and rural communities in Sindh province, Pakistan. Knowledge of symptoms was generally deficient, particularly in rural females. Regarding TB prevention, 22.4% of rural and 14.4% of urban males said completing treatment was important; only 9.8% of rural and(More)
BACKGROUND Unsafe injections including reuse of disposable syringe is very common in developing countries including Pakistan. Healthcare providers unnecessarily prescribe injections to patients suggesting that patients ask for injections. We conducted this qualitative study to determine the reasons of overuse of therapeutic injections by the communities in(More)
A prospective study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan on the virology of enteropathogens excreted by children with acute gastroenteritis and the results were compared with a control group of healthy children. Rotavirus and Adenovirus detection was done using ELISA techniques, while enterovirus isolation was done by virus culture. In 1990, 12.3% children(More)
In an earlier study in Karachi, Pakistan, households that received free soap and handwashing promotion for 9 months reported 53% less diarrhea than controls. Eighteen months after the intervention ended, these households were enrolled in a follow-up study to assess sustainability of handwashing behavior. Upon re-enrollment, mothers in households originally(More)
We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby(More)