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BACKGROUND More than 3.5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea. METHODS In adjoining squatter settlements in(More)
In an earlier study in Karachi, Pakistan, households that received free soap and handwashing promotion for 9 months reported 53% less diarrhea than controls. Eighteen months after the intervention ended, these households were enrolled in a follow-up study to assess sustainability of handwashing behavior. Upon re-enrollment, mothers in households originally(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap. METHODS The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned(More)
CONTEXT Washing hands with soap prevents diarrhea, but children at the highest risk of death from diarrhea are younger than 1 year, too young to wash their own hands. Previous studies lacked sufficient power to assess the impact of household handwashing on diarrhea in infants. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of promoting household handwashing with soap(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate handwashing behaviour 5 years after a handwashing intervention in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS In 2003, we randomised neighbourhoods to control, handwashing promotion, or handwashing promotion and water treatment. Intervention households were given soap +/- water treatment product and weekly handwashing education for 9 months. In 2009,(More)
We introduced home drinking water disinfection and handwashing with soap in Karachi squatter settlements to evaluate their effect on diarrhea. In April 2000, 150 households received soap, 76 received dilute bleach and a water storage vessel, and 76 were enrolled as controls. In 2000, among households wealthy enough to own a refrigerator, children in(More)
We conducted a study in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan where residents report commonly washing their hands to determine if providing soap, encouraging hand washing, and improving wash-water quality would improve hand cleanliness. We allocated interventions to 75 mothers and collected hand-rinse samples on unannounced visits. In the final model(More)
We investigated gender differences in knowledge of and attitude towards tuberculosis (TB) in urban and rural communities in Sindh province, Pakistan. Knowledge of symptoms was generally deficient, particularly in rural females. Regarding TB prevention, 22.4% of rural and 14.4% of urban males said completing treatment was important; only 9.8% of rural and(More)
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A, B, and C virus in healthy Pakistani children. HAV IgG antibody was assayed in 258 subjects and it was found that 94% children by 5 years of age had HAV IgG-antibody. The overall seroprevalence of HAV IgG antibody was 55.8% and IgM 5.3%. HBVsAb levels assayed in 236 healthy(More)
OBJECTIVE To pilot test an inexpensive, home-based water decontamination and storage system in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi. METHODS Fifty households received a 20-L plastic water storage vessel with a high-quality spout and a regular supply of diluted hypochlorite solution. Twenty-five control households were recruited. Water samples were(More)