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Studies of C. elegans vulval development provide insights into the process of pattern formation during animal development. The invariant pattern of vulval precursor cell fates is specified by the integration of at least two signaling systems. Recent findings suggest that multiple, partially redundant mechanisms are involved in patterning the vulval(More)
OBJECTIVE Approximately 25% of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes will develop diastolic dysfunction. This defect, which is characterized by an increase in time to cardiac relaxation, results in part from a reduction in the activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a), the ATP-driven pump that translocates Ca(2+) from the(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ethanol injections on protein expression in the nucleus accumbens shell (ACB-sh) of alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-non-preferring (NP) and Wistar (W) rats. Rats were injected for 5 consecutive days with either saline or 1 g/kg ethanol; 24 h after the last injection, rats were killed and brains(More)
Mutation in leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a common cause of Parkinson disease (PD). A disease-causing point mutation R1441H/G/C in the GTPase domain of LRRK2 leads to overactivation of its kinase domain. However, the mechanism by which this mutation alters the normal function of its GTPase domain [Ras of complex proteins (Roc)] remains unclear.(More)
Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including(More)
BACKGROUND Following amputation, urodele salamander limbs reprogram somatic cells to form a blastema that self-organizes into the missing limb parts to restore the structure and function of the limb. To help understand the molecular basis of blastema formation, we used quantitative label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry(More)
A major unmet need in LC-MS/MS-based proteomics analyses is a set of tools for quantitative assessment of system performance and evaluation of technical variability. Here we describe 46 system performance metrics for monitoring chromatographic performance, electrospray source stability, MS1 and MS2 signals, dynamic sampling of ions for MS/MS, and peptide(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma metastasis status is highly associated with the overall survival of patients; yet, little is known about proteomic changes during melanoma tumor progression. To better understand the changes in protein expression involved in melanoma progression and metastasis, and to identify potential biomarkers, we conducted a global quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. Huge commercial demand has led to excessive harvest and a dramatic decline in its numbers. The diversity of terrains and climates on the Tibetan Plateau and the broad insect host range(More)