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Verification of candidate biomarkers relies upon specific, quantitative assays optimized for selective detection of target proteins, and is increasingly viewed as a critical step in the discovery pipeline that bridges unbiased biomarker discovery to preclinical validation. Although individual laboratories have demonstrated that multiple reaction monitoring(More)
To determine the abundance and distribution of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in alpine and permafrost soils, 12 soils at altitudes of 4000-6550 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) were collected from the northern slope of the Mount Everest (Tibetan Plateau), where the permanent snow line is at 5800-6000 m a.s.l. Communities were characterized by(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules coded by up to 13 genes in insects and 4 genes in mammals. In insects PGRPs activate antimicrobial pathways in the hemolymph and cells, or are peptidoglycan (PGN)-lytic amidases. In mammals one PGRP is an antibacterial neutrophil protein. We report that human PGRP-L is a(More)
Cardiac inotropy progressively declines during diabetes mellitus. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect remain incompletely characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that ventricular myosin heavy chains (MHC) undergo carbonylation by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) during diabetes and these modifications contribute to the inotropic(More)
UNLABELLED Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), ranging from relatively benign simple steatosis to progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, is an increasingly common chronic liver disease. Liver biopsy is currently the only reliable tool for staging the subtypes of NAFLD; therefore, noninvasive serum biomarkers for evaluation of(More)
PURPOSE These studies were designed to determine whether ritonavir inhibits breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and, if so, how. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Ritonavir effects on breast cancer cell growth were studied in the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive lines MCF7 and T47D and in the ER-negative lines MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231. Effects of ritonavir on(More)
A major unmet need in LC-MS/MS-based proteomics analyses is a set of tools for quantitative assessment of system performance and evaluation of technical variability. Here we describe 46 system performance metrics for monitoring chromatographic performance, electrospray source stability, MS1 and MS2 signals, dynamic sampling of ions for MS/MS, and peptide(More)
XPA, XPC-hHR23B, RPA, and TFIIH all are the damage recognition proteins essential for the early stage of nucleotide excision repair. Nonetheless, it is not clear how these proteins work together at the damaged DNA site. To get insight into the molecular mechanism of damage recognition, we carried out a comprehensive analysis on the interaction between(More)
Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including(More)