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In cultures of dissociated rat hippocampal neurons, persistent potentiation and depression of glutamatergic synapses were induced by correlated spiking of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. The relative timing between the presynaptic and postsynaptic spiking determined the direction and the extent of synaptic changes. Repetitive postsynaptic spiking(More)
Correlated spiking of pre- and postsynaptic neurons can result in strengthening or weakening of synapses, depending on the temporal order of spiking. Recent findings indicate that there are narrow and cell type-specific temporal windows for such synaptic modification and that the generally accepted input- (or synapse-) specific rule for modification appears(More)
In the developing frog visual system, topographic refinement of the retinotectal projection depends on electrical activity. In vivo whole-cell recording from developing Xenopus tectal neurons shows that convergent retinotectal synapses undergo activity-dependent cooperation and competition following correlated pre- and postsynaptic spiking within a narrow(More)
Activity-induced synaptic modification is essential for the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Repetitive correlated activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons can induce persistent enhancement or decrement of synaptic efficacy, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD). An important unresolved issue is(More)
Activity-induced modification of neuronal connections is essential for the development of the nervous system and may also underlie learning and memory functions of mature brain. Previous studies have shown an increase in dendritic spine density and/or enlargement of spines after the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Using two-photon time-lapse(More)
Nerve growth is regulated by attractive and repulsive factors in the nervous system. Microscopic gradients of Collapsin-1/Semaphorin III/D (Sema III) and myelin-associated glycoprotein trigger repulsive turning responses by growth cones of cultured Xenopus spinal neurons; the repulsion can be converted to attraction by pharmacological activation of the(More)
Extracellular ATP released from axons is known to assist activity-dependent signaling between neurons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Here we report that ATP released from astrocytes as a result of neuronal activity can also modulate central synaptic transmission. In cultures of hippocampal neurons, endogenously released ATP tonically(More)
Development of the nervous system depends on the correct pathfinding and target recognition by the growing tip of an axon, the growth cone. Diffusible or substrate-bound molecules present in the environment may serve as either attractants or repellents to influence the direction of growth-cone extension. Here we report that differences in(More)
Coincident pre- and postsynaptic activation is known to induce long-term modification of glutamatergic synapses. We report here that, in both hippocampal cultures and acute hippocampal slices, repetitive postsynaptic spiking within 20 ms before and after the activation of GABAergic synapses also led to a persistent change in synaptic strength. This synaptic(More)
In the neocortex, each neuron receives thousands of synaptic inputs distributed across an extensive dendritic tree. Although postsynaptic processing of each input is known to depend on its dendritic location, it is unclear whether activity-dependent synaptic modification is also location-dependent. Here we report that both the magnitude and the temporal(More)