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This work is a survey of the average cost control problem for discrete-time Markov processes. The authors have attempted to put together a comprehensive account of the considerable research on this problem over the past three decades. The exposition ranges from finite to Borel state and action spaces and includes a variety of methodologies to find and(More)
Stochastic hybrid systems arise in numerous applications of systems with multiple models; e.g., air traffc management, flexible manufacturing systems, fault tolerant control systems etc. In a typical hybrid system, the state space is hybrid in the sense that some components take values in a Euclidean space, while some other components are discrete. In this(More)
We study the controllability properties of the class of stochastic differential systems characterized by a linear controlled diffusion perturbed by a smooth, bounded, uniformly Lipschitz nonlinearity. We obtain conditions that guarantee the weak and strong controllability of the system. Also, given any open set in the state space we construct a control,(More)
Brain tumors are one of the most formidable diseases of mankind. They have only a fair to poor prognosis and high relapse rate. One of the major causes of extreme difficulty in brain tumor treatment is the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB). BBB comprises different molecular components and transport systems, which in turn create efflux machinery or(More)
The carboxy-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein (CHIP) is a cochaperone E3 ligase containing three tandem repeats of tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs and a C-terminal U-box domain separated by a charged coiled-coil region. CHIP is known to function as a central quality control E3 ligase and regulates several proteins involved in a myriad of physiological(More)
ABSTACT The existence of optimal stable Markov relaxed controls for the ergodic control of multidimensional diffusions is established by direct probabilistic methods based on a characterization of a.s. limit sets of empirical measures. The optimality of the above is established in the strong (i.e., almost sure) sense among all admissible controls under very(More)
During differentiation, skeletal muscle cells withdraw from the cell cycle and fuse into multinucleated myotubes. Unlike quiescent cells, however, these cells cannot be induced to reenter S phase by means of growth factor stimulation. The studies reported here document that both the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor(More)
Although mouse studies have demonstrated the presence of an effector memory population in nonlymphoid tissues, the phenotype of human CD8(+) T cells present in such compartments has not been characterized. Because of the relatively large number of CD8(+) T cells present in breast milk, we were able to characterize the phenotype of this cell population in(More)