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This work is a survey of the average cost control problem for discrete-time Markov processes. The authors have attempted to put together a comprehensive account of the considerable research on this problem over the past three decades. The exposition ranges from finite to Borel state and action spaces and includes a variety of methodologies to find and(More)
Stochastic hybrid systems arise in numerous applications of systems with multiple models; e.g., air traffc management, flexible manufacturing systems, fault tolerant control systems etc. In a typical hybrid system, the state space is hybrid in the sense that some components take values in a Euclidean space, while some other components are discrete. In this(More)
The exclusion of firm-specific considerations in the standard (economizing calculus) approach to buyer–supplier ties makes the large variations in the types of contracts used within the same industry unexplainable. This article tests Ghosh and John's (1999) strategizing calculus model that purports to close this gap. The core organizing principle of this(More)
We study the controllability properties of the class of stochastic differential systems characterized by a linear controlled diffusion perturbed by a smooth, bounded, uniformly Lipschitz nonlinearity. We obtain conditions that guarantee the weak and strong controllability of the system. Also, given any open set in the state space we construct a control,(More)
ABSTACT The existence of optimal stable Markov relaxed controls for the ergodic control of multidimensional diffusions is established by direct probabilistic methods based on a characterization of a.s. limit sets of empirical measures. The optimality of the above is established in the strong (i.e., almost sure) sense among all admissible controls under very(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) is increased when the patients are on hemodialysis. Vascular events caused by atherosclerosis are the major cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. AIMS This study was done to find out the relationship between carotid artery intima media(More)