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The regional distributions of iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium in parkinsonian brains were compared with those of matched controls. In mild Parkinson's disease (PD), there were no significant differences in the content of total iron between the two groups, whereas there was a significant increase in total iron and iron (III) in substantia nigra of(More)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors were among the first antidepressants to be discovered and have long been used as such. It now seems that many of these agents might have therapeutic value in several common neurodegenerative conditions, independently of their inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity. However, many claims and some counter-claims have been made(More)
An animal model of nutritional iron deficiency (ID) is described that demonstrates a reduction of brain nonheme iron. The most prominent feature of ID is the significant and selective diminution of central dopamine neurotransmission resulting from the decreased number of dopamine D2 receptors in the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, pituitary, and in all(More)
Razor sharp and high iron deposits are present in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the function of such high iron content is not known, the homeostasis of brain iron is important for normal brain function. The participation of free tissue iron in oxidative stress (OS), resulting in the formation of cytotoxic hydroxyl radical (.OH) from H2O2 (Fenton(More)
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been shown to induce parkinsonism in man and non-human primates. Monoamine-oxidase B (MAO-B) has been reported to be implicated in both MPTP-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease, since selegiline (L-deprenyl), an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity(More)
Significant differences in the content of iron (III) and total iron were found in post mortem substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease. There was an increase of 176% in the levels of total iron and 225% of iron (III) in the substantia nigra of the parkinsonian patients compared to age matched controls. In the cortex (Brodmann area 21), hippocampus, putamen,(More)
Semiquantitative histological evaluation of brain iron and ferritin in Parkinson's (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (DAT) have been performed in paraffin sections of brain regions which included frontal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and brain stem. The results indicate a significant selective increase of Fe3+ and ferritin in substantia nigra zona compacta(More)
A selective increase in content of iron in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra has been implicated in the biochemical pathology of Parkinson's disease. Iron is thought to induce oxidative stress by liberation of oxygen free radicals from H2O2. Because 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is thought to induce nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal lesions via(More)
Iron and monoamine oxidase activity are increased in brain of Parkinson's disease (PD). They are associated with autoxidation and oxidative deamination of dopamine by MAO resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and the onset of oxidative stress to induce neurodegeneration. Iron chelators (desferal, Vk-28 and clioquinol) but not copper(More)
Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron, iron (II), and iron (III) contents in brain regions from Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases have demonstrated a selective increase of total iron content in parkinsonian substantia nigra zona compacta but not in the zona reticulata. The increase of iron content is mainly in iron (III). The ratio(More)