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In the production of bone grafts intended for transplantation, basic safety measures to avoid the transmission of pathogens are selection and serological screening of donors for markers of virus infections. As an additional safety tool we investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on the sterility of human bone diaphysis transplants and evaluated its(More)
OBJECTIVES Based on the European Standard EN 1040, the validation guidelines of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices and CPMP guidelines we tested the antimicrobial effectiveness of a peracetic acid-ethanol sterilization procedure (PES) in allogenic avital bone transplants. STUDY DESIGN Delipidated human bone spongiosa cubes (15 x 15(More)
The aim of this study was to validate the virus-inactivating/eliminating capacity of the manufacturing process of spongiosa cuboids. Both the sterilization step with peracetic acid (PAA)/ethanol and the defatting step of bones with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) were investigated. Relevant enveloped, non-enveloped, and model viruses belonging to different(More)
Several virus inactivation procedures like heat treatment, gamma irradiation and chemical sterilization are used to increase the safety of bone tissue transplants. In this study we present data on the virus-inactivating effect of heat disinfection on human femoral heads, using the Marburg bone bank system 'Lobator sd-2'. Three enveloped viruses (human(More)
Different procedures are available to inactivate bacteria and fungi, including their spores, as well as viruses in human bone transplants. The most efficient methods are considered to be gamma irradiation and thermal inactivation as well as chemical sterilization methods like the peracetic acid-ethanol treatment (PES). Following national and international(More)
Epidemiological data suggest that Alkhumra (misnamed as Alkhurma) virus (ALKV) is transmitted from livestock animals to humans by direct contact with animals or by the mosquito bites, but not by ticks. To assess the ability of the virus to replicate in mosquito cells, serum and plasma of seven acutely febrile patients with clinically suspected ALKV(More)
RT-PCR to detect Alkhumra virus (ALKV) RNA in plasma or serum has been the standard practice to confirm this infection in the first seven days of illness. In this study, RT-PCR detection of viral RNA from the plasma, serum, and buffy coat (BC) was compared to virus isolation. Plasma, serum, and BC were obtained from seven patients with clinically suspected(More)
BACKGROUND Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. METHODS From 15-17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with(More)
BACKGROUND Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is a newly described flavivirus first isolated in 1994-1995 from the Alkhumra district south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, the virus was also isolated from Makkah (2001-2003) and Najran (2008-2009), Saudi Arabia. METHODS The full-length genome of an AHFV strain isolated from patients in Najran(More)