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Here, we demonstrate self-organized formation of apico-basally polarized cortical tissues from ESCs using an efficient three-dimensional aggregation culture (SFEBq culture). The generated cortical neurons are functional, transplantable, and capable of forming proper long-range connections in vivo and in vitro. The regional identity of the generated pallial(More)
Balanced organogenesis requires the orchestration of multiple cellular interactions to create the collective cell behaviours that progressively shape developing tissues. It is currently unclear how individual, localized parts are able to coordinate with each other to develop a whole organ shape. Here we report the dynamic, autonomous formation of the optic(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into neuroectodermal progenitors when cultured as floating aggregates in serum-free conditions. Here, we show that strict removal of exogenous patterning factors during early differentiation steps induces efficient generation of rostral hypothalamic-like progenitors (Rax(+)/Six3(+)/Vax1(+)) in mouse ES cell-derived(More)
Here, using further optimized 3D culture that allows highly selective induction and long-term growth of human ES cell (hESC)-derived cortical neuroepithelium, we demonstrate unique aspects of self-organization in human neocorticogenesis. Self-organized cortical tissue spontaneously forms a polarity along the dorsocaudal-ventrorostral axis and undergoes(More)
In the mammalian cortex, the dorsal telencephalon exhibits a characteristic stratified structure. We previously reported that three-dimensional (3D) culture of mouse ES cells (mESCs) can efficiently generate cortical neuroepithelium (NE) and layer-specific cortical neurons. However, the cortical NE generated in this mESC culture was structurally unstable(More)
In vitro neural differentiation culture of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provides a promising tool for preparing neural cells for replacement therapies and a versatile system for understanding mechanisms of neurogenesis. Consistent with the neural-default model, neural differentiation spontaneously occurs in ESCs cultured in medium containing minimal(More)
In this article, we show that mouse embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D retinal tissue developed a structured outer nuclear layer (ONL) with complete inner and outer segments even in an advanced retinal degeneration model (rd1) that lacked ONL. We also observed host-graft synaptic connections by immunohistochemistry. This study(More)
The developing dorsomedial telencephalon includes the medial pallium, which goes on to form the hippocampus. Generating a reliable source of human hippocampal tissue is an important step for cell-based research into hippocampus-related diseases. Here we show the generation of functional hippocampal granule- and pyramidal-like neurons from self-organizing(More)
PURPOSE To establish a practical research tool for studying the pathogenesis of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) diseases, we optimized culture procedures to induce neurite outgrowth from three-dimensional self-organizing optic vesicles (3D-retinas) differentiated in vitro from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS The developing(More)
In biological development, multiple cells cooperate to form tissue morphologies based on their mechanical interactions; namely active force generation and passive viscoelastic response. In particular, the dynamic processes of tissue deformations are governed by the viscous properties of the tissues. These properties are spatially inhomogeneous because they(More)