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OBJECTIVE Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a hereditary motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR). Animal studies have shown that the pathogenesis of SBMA is dependent on serum testosterone level. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of androgen deprivation by(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is a hereditary motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor. At present there are no treatments for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, although leuprorelin suppressed the accumulation of pathogenic androgen receptors in a phase 2 trial. We aimed to assess the(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. Because the progression of SBMA is slow, it is plausible to identify biomarkers that monitor disease course for therapeutic development. To verify whether the 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a biomarker of SBMA, we(More)
We assayed plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, fibrinopeptide A, plasmin-alpha 2 plasmin inhibitor complex, D dimer, and antithrombin III activity in 40 patients with cerebral thrombosis and nine patients with cerebral embolism during the acute (less than 7 days), subacute (7-27 days), and chronic (greater than or equal to 28 days) periods and compared(More)
Noninvasive measurement of the distribution and oxygenation state of hemoglobin (Hb) inside the tissue is strongly required to analyze the tumor-associated vasculatures. We developed a photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system with a hemispherical-shaped detector array (HDA). Here, we show that PAI system with HDA revealed finer vasculature, more detailed(More)
Functional differentiation is found in the spinal cord. A unique set of neurological deficits follows a multi-focal injury. Clinically, sensory and motor disturbance present independently, often resulting in sensory and motor deficit dissociation. This study examined 103 spinal decompression illness (DCI) cases. The neurological deficit dissociation was(More)
OBJECTIVE Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a lower motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The fundamental histopathological finding of this disease is an extensive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. It is, however, difficult to evaluate clinically(More)
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