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We investigated the molecular epidemiology and biological characteristics of wild measles viruses isolated since 1984 in Japan. The circulating measles virus was of genotype C1 before 1985, D3 from 1987 to 1990, and D5 from 1990 to 1997. It was replaced by the same cluster of Chicago-type D3 strain from 1997 to 1999. In 2000, D5 recirculated with sporadic(More)
The development and distribution of lymphocyte subsets in bovine gut-associated lymphoid tissues (ileal and jejunal Peyer's patches (PP)) were examined. Before birth, the composition of lymphocyte subsets in both PP follicles did not differ except for the dimensions of the interfollicular area and the dome region. Many IgM+ cells were observed in these(More)
Most mumps patients are clinically diagnosed without any virological examinations, but some diagnosed cases of mumps may be caused by other pathogens or secondary vaccine failure (SVF). To clarify these issues, a sensitive, specific, and rapid diagnostic method is required. We obtained 60 salivary swabs from 34 patients with natural infection during the(More)
Clinically apparent mumps reinfection is considered extremely rare, but several cases have been suspected of reinfection in an out-patient clinic. In this study, virological examination, virus isolation, the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), and IgG and IgM EIA antibodies, were examined in order to identify mumps(More)
Annual seasonal outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occur every winter. Most patients are diagnosed clinically by a rapid detection kit for RSV protein(s) from nasopharyngeal secretion (NPS), but some problems have been reported on the specificity and sensitivity of such rapid detection kits. To ratify these issues, a sensitive,(More)
Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 cases of measles are reported annually in Japan, although the actual number of measles infections is considered to be five to ten times higher than the number of reported cases. Despite the availability of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines, regional outbreaks in Okinawa, transmission in adults, and secondary vaccine(More)
Sero-epidemiological studies are required to identify populations susceptible to measles. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is no longer sensitive enough to confirm immunity to measles, and at present the particle agglutination (PA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) are employed. The most reliable method is the neutralization test(More)
Different genotypes of C1, D3, D5, and H1 were isolated in outbreaks of 1984, 1987-1988, 1991-1993, and 2001, respectively, when the previous circulating genotype was replaced successively by a new genotype, through molecular studies of measles since 1984 in Japan. In March 2007, several patients with measles were observed in outpatient clinics, who were(More)
Children and elderly individuals are often infected easily and repeatedly with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV); however, the features of recurrent infection in the same individual are defined poorly. To clarify the clinical significance of repeated HRSV infections in relation to subgroup epidemiology, this study performed prospective and(More)
Surveillance studies of the influenza viruses circulating in Europe and other countries in 2007 and 2008 have revealed rates of resistance to oseltamivir of up to 67% among H1N1 viruses. In the present study, we examined 202 clinical samples obtained from patients infected with H1N1 virus in Japan in 2007 and 2008 for oseltamivir resistance and found that(More)