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Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically highly divergent. Monoclonal antibodies raised in mice against one kind of norovirus virus-like particle (VLP), however, were found to have broad recognition. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) for one of these broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies, 5B18,(More)
We sequenced the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQA1 gene in 352 Japanese cattle (95 Japanese Black, 91 Holstein, 102 Japanese Shorthorn and 64 Jersey cattle) using a new sequence-based typing method. In total, 19 bovine MHC (BoLA)-DQA1 alleles, of which two were novel alleles, were detected. The Holstein, Jersey, Japanese Shorthorn and(More)
PURPOSE We developed a novel echoendoscope that enables contrast harmonic imaging using ultrasound contrast agents and performed contrast-enhanced harmonic endosonography (EUS) both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS An experimental convex-array echoendoscope equipped with a wideband transducer and a specific mode for contrast harmonic imaging was used. A(More)
Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a structure-specific nuclease involved in DNA replication and repair. The mouse Fen1 gene, which has two exons, is located immediately adjacent to the gene corresponding to full-length cDNA of Riken 1810006K21 (1810006K21Rik) in a head-to-head orientation. Transcription initiation sites of each gene are 274 bp apart in the(More)
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since the discovery of human norovirus (HuNoV), an efficient and reproducible norovirus replication system has not been established in cultured cells. Although limited amounts of virus particles can be produced when the HuNoV genome is directly transfected into cells, the HuNoV cycle of(More)
Norwalk virus (NoV) is responsible for most outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. NoV is genetically diverse and show antigenically variable. Recently, we produced a monoclonal antibody called 5B-18 that reacts broadly with NoV genogroup II (GII). We suspected the 5B-18 binds to a conformational epitope on 3D structure of virion. X-ray crystallography(More)
Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Public and personal hygiene is one of the most important countermeasures for preventing spread of NoV infection. However, no a practicable cell culture system for NoV had been developed, initial tests of the virucidal effectiveness of anti-NoV disinfectants(More)
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