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Organ-specific stem cells can be identified by the side population (SP) phenotype, which is defined by the property to effectively exclude the Hoechst 33342 dye. The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2/BCRP1 mediates the SP phenotype. Because hepatic oval cells possess several characteristics of stem cells, we examined whether they have the SP phenotype(More)
Behavioral functions of Wistar and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, Wilson's disease animal model, were compared by measuring the open-field, acoustic startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and shuttle-box avoidance learning tests with or without oral supplementation with copper or D-penicillamine, copper chelator. All of the LEC rats, irrespective of(More)
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory, and are affected in several neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms of their development are not fully elucidated. A recent report demonstrated that some BFCNs in adult rat are(More)
To address the functional alterations of monoaminergic neuronal systems in mice after single and repeated administration of methamphetamine, we examined the tissue contents of monoamines and their metabolites in addition to locomotor activity estimated by horizontal locomotion and rearing measurements. In male ICR mice, the repeated treatment regimen(More)
Little is known about the effect of microglial activation on cell death. This study examines the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), triggers of microglial activation, on cell death induced by several agents in cultured rat microglia. For comparison, the effect of LPS on cell death is also examined in cultured astrocytes.(More)
Histamine has been suggested to have roles as a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator. Direct fiber connections between the hypothalamus and the cerebellum have recently been demonstrated and it is suggested that the cerebellum is involved in the control of autonomic and emotional functions. These fibers include histaminergic fibers. The components of(More)
A variety of drug treatment regimens have been proposed to model the dysphoric state observed during methamphetamine (METH) withdrawal in rats, but little has been established in experiments using mice. In male ICR mice, a fixed-dose injection regimen of METH (1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for 10 consecutive days) induced a significant decrease in the(More)
In male ICR mice, a single intraperitoneal administration of methamphetamine (METH) (10 mg/kg) induced stereotyped behavior such as continuous sniffing, circling, and nail biting, reaching a plateau level 20 min after the injection. Subcutaneous pretreatment with clorgyline, a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A inhibitor, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg 2 h prior to the drug(More)
Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization in mice were inhibited by clorgyline, an irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor. In this study, the effect of clorgyline pretreatment on METH-induced rewarding effect was assessed by a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using(More)
Chronic abuse of amphetamines, such as d-amphetamine (AMPH) and d-methamphetamine, results in psychological dependence, a condition in which the drug produces a feeling of satisfaction and a drive that requires periodic or continuous administration of the drug to produce overwhelming pleasure or to avoid discomfort such as dysphoria. The dysphoric state of(More)