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Alcohol ingestion affects both motor and cognitive functions. One brain system that is influenced by ethanol is the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection system, which projects to diverse neocortical and limbic areas. The BF is associated with memory and cognitive function. Our primary interest is the examination of how regions that receive BF(More)
Our previous microdialysis study demonstrated that both ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (ACe) decrease in vivo acetylcholine (ACh) release in the medial frontal cortex of freely moving rats. To better understand the mechanisms of EtOH and ACe's effects on the cholinergic system in the brain, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)(More)
Using brain microdialysis, we measured both ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) levels in the striatum of free-moving rats following the inhibition of EtOH oxidation pathways. Rats received intraperitoneal EtOH (1g/kg) alone or in combination with 4-methylpyrazole (MP, 82 mg/kg, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor), and/or catalase inhibitor sodium azide(More)
BACKGROUND Salsolinol, a neuropharmacologically active compound, is formed by the condensation of acetaldehyde (AcH) with dopamine (DA) in the brain. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of a high concentration of AcH on salsolinol formation and to compare the release of DA, serotonin (5-HT), and salsolinol in the striatum and nucleus accumbens(More)
Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine on spatial memory in ApoE-knockout (ApoE-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice in a radial arm maze. Training occurred on three consecutive days and the test was performed on day 4, with one trial per day. Then on day 4, animals were administered nicotine (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) or the antagonist of nicotinic(More)
We investigated the effects of alcohol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (ACe) on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the frontal cortex of Aldh2-/- (KO) mice. KO mice were used as models of Aldh2-deficient humans to examine ACe effects. Brain samples were analyzed at 40 and 120 min after 2- and 4-g/kg intraperitoneal EtOH(More)
The effects of acetaldehyde (ACD) on dopamine (DA) and DA-derived salsolinol (SAL) levels were investigated in the striatum of freely moving rats. Dialysate levels of DA and SAL were determined using in vivo reverse microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector. Perfusion with 1,000 microM ACD decreased(More)
The subject of the present paper is the simultaneous determination of ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) concentrations in the striatum of freely moving rats using an in vivo microdialysis followed by head-space gas chromatography (GC). Major operation conditions of GC were as follows: column, injector and detector temperatures 90, 110 and 200 degrees C,(More)
The effect of high acetaldehyde (ACe) on acetylcholine (ACh) release was studied in vivo in the medial frontal cortex (mfc) of freely moving rats using brain microdialysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector. Ethanol (EtOH) and ACe concentrations were quantified simultaneously in the mfc of awake rats by in(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency may directly contribute to excess acetaldehyde (AcH) accumulation after ethanol (EtOH) drinking and AcH mediates some of the behavioral effects of EtOH. Apolipoprotein E has been suggested to be involved in the alteration of attention and memory. We have chosen Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO), ApoE-KO, and their wild-type (WT)(More)