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New blood vessels are initially formed through the assembly or sprouting of endothelial cells, but the recruitment of supporting pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (mural cells) ensures the formation of a mature and stable vascular network. Defective mural-cell coverage is associated with the poorly organized and leaky vasculature seen in tumors or(More)
The molecular basis of skeletal muscle lineage determination was investigated by analyzing DNA control elements that regulate the myogenic determination gene myoD. A distal enhancer was identified that positively regulates expression of the human myoD gene. The myoD enhancer and promoter were active in myogenic and several nonmyogenic cell lines. In(More)
We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 6 affecting milk fat and protein concentration to a 4-cM confidence interval, centered on the microsatellite BM143. We characterized the genes and sequence variation in this region and identified common haplotypes spanning five polymorphic sites in the genes IBSP, SPP1, PKD2, and ABCG2(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the rat beta-actin gene was determined. The gene codes for a protein identical to the bovine beta-actin. It has a large intron in the 5' untranslated region 6 nucleotides upstream from the initiator ATG, and 4 introns in the coding region at codons specifying amino acids 41/42, 121/122, 267, and 327/328. Unlike the skeletal muscle(More)
MyoD belongs to a small family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors implicated in skeletal muscle lineage determination and differentiation. Previously, we identified a transcriptional enhancer that regulates the embryonic expression of the human myoD gene. This enhancer had been localized to a 4 kb fragment located 18 to 22 kb upstream of the(More)
Loss of pericytes from the capillary wall is a hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, however, the pathogenic significance of this phenomenon is unclear. In previous mouse gene knockout models leading to pericyte deficiency, prenatal lethality has so far precluded analysis of postnatal consequences in the retina. We now report that endothelium-restricted(More)
Pericytes provide vascular stability and control endothelial proliferation. Pericyte loss, microaneurysms, and acellular capillaries are characteristic for the diabetic retina. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B is involved in pericyte recruitment, and brain capillaries of mice with a genetic ablation of PDGF-B show pericyte loss and microaneurysms. We(More)
The murine VEGF gene is alternatively transcribed to yield the VEGF(120), VEGF(164), and VEGF(188) isoforms, which differ in their potential to bind to heparan sulfate and neuropilin-1 and to stimulate endothelial growth. Here, their role in retinal vascular development was studied in mice selectively expressing single isoforms. VEGF(164/164) mice were(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor blood vessels are both structurally and functionally abnormal compared with normal vessels. A limited support of mural cells may contribute to these abnormalities. Here, we characterized mural cell recruitment in 2 mouse tumor models and addressed the question of why tumor vessels fail to recruit a proper coat of mural cells. METHODS AND(More)
Mouse embryos genetically null for the alphav integrin subunit develop intracerebral hemorrhages at midgestation and die shortly after birth. A key question is whether the hemorrhage arises from primary defects in vascular endothelial cells or pericytes or from other causes. We have previously reported normal initiation of cerebral vessels comprising(More)