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New blood vessels are initially formed through the assembly or sprouting of endothelial cells, but the recruitment of supporting pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (mural cells) ensures the formation of a mature and stable vascular network. Defective mural-cell coverage is associated with the poorly organized and leaky vasculature seen in tumors or(More)
The molecular basis of skeletal muscle lineage determination was investigated by analyzing DNA control elements that regulate the myogenic determination gene myoD. A distal enhancer was identified that positively regulates expression of the human myoD gene. The myoD enhancer and promoter were active in myogenic and several nonmyogenic cell lines. In(More)
Pericytes provide vascular stability and control endothelial proliferation. Pericyte loss, microaneurysms, and acellular capillaries are characteristic for the diabetic retina. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B is involved in pericyte recruitment, and brain capillaries of mice with a genetic ablation of PDGF-B show pericyte loss and microaneurysms. We(More)
Embryos and embryocultures can be successfully transplanted into various bodily organs. However immunosuppression or homogenicity are required for the success of such experimental manipulation. Since the brain is considered immunologically privileged, we transplanted 2-4 cell embryos of C57BL x BALB/c, embryonic stem cells (ES) or embryoid bodies (EB)(More)
To explore the possibility that overproduction of neuronal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) confers changes in both cholinergic and morphogenic intercellular interactions, we studied developmental responses to neuronal AChE overexpression in motoneurons and neuromuscular junctions of AChE-transgenic mice. Perikarya of spinal cord motoneurons were consistently(More)
The murine VEGF gene is alternatively transcribed to yield the VEGF(120), VEGF(164), and VEGF(188) isoforms, which differ in their potential to bind to heparan sulfate and neuropilin-1 and to stimulate endothelial growth. Here, their role in retinal vascular development was studied in mice selectively expressing single isoforms. VEGF(164/164) mice were(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive deterioration is a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer's disease. This deterioration is notably associated with structural changes and subsequent cell death which occur, primarily, in acetylcholine-producing neurons, progressively damaging cholinergic neurotransmission. We have reported previously that excess acetylcholinesterase (AChE)(More)
Mammary alveolar development during pregnancy is triggered by hormone signals. The prolactin receptor/Jak2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 signal transduction pathway is the principal mediator of these cues and alveolar development is abrogated in its absence. The loss of the basic helix-loop-helix protein inhibitor of(More)
DNA in differentiated somatic cells has a fixed pattern of methylation, which is faithfully copied after replication. By contrast, the methylation patterns of many tissue-specific and some housekeeping genes are altered during normal development. This modification of DNA methylation in the embryo has also been observed in transgenic mice and in transfection(More)
Transgenic mice carrying the bacterial lacZ reporter gene under the control of the regulatory elements of the human myoD gene have been produced. The developmental expression of the myoD reporter transgene in somites, limb buds, visceral arches, and cephalocervical regions was studied in transgenic embryos by beta-gal staining. In somites, the(More)