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During normal vision, when subjects attempt to fix their gaze on a small stimulus feature, small fixational eye movements persist. We have recorded the impulse activity of single neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkeys while their fixational eye movements moved the receptive-field activating region (AR) over and around a stationary(More)
Response variability of neurons limits the reliability and resolution of sensory systems. It is generally thought that response variability in the visual system increases at cortical levels, but the causes of the variability have not been identified. We have measured the response variability of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of alert monkeys. We(More)
1. In alert macaque monkeys, multiunit activity is encountered in an alternating sequence of silent and spontaneously active zones as an electrode is lowered through the striate cortex (V1). 2. Individual neurons that are spontaneously active in the dark usually have a maintained discharge in the light. Because both types of discharge occur in the absence(More)
In natural vision, continuously changing input is generated by fast saccadic eye movements and slow drifts. We analyzed effects of fixational saccades, voluntary saccades, and drifts on the activity of macaque V1 neurons. Effects of fixational saccades and small voluntary saccades were equivalent. In the presence of a near-optimal stimulus, separate(More)
Visual performance is greatly impaired when tested with heterochromatic isoluminant stimuli. It is thus concluded that the chromatic system contribution to many visual tasks is limited. We suggest that unless color and luminance are shown to be processed independently, such experiments do not demonstrate shortcomings of the chromatic system but rather the(More)
We tested the hypothesis that receptive field (RF) locations of visual cortex cells maintain a fixed location on the retina and move in space with movements of the eye. Responses to a bar swept across the RF were recorded from 29 neurons in V1 (26) and V2 (3) of alert monkeys while precisely monitoring the eye movements of fixation. There was a tight(More)
The reliability of neuronal responses determines the resources needed to represent the external world and constrains the nature of the neural code. Studies of anesthetized animals have indicated that neuronal responses become progressively more variable as information travels from the retina to the cortex. These results have been interpreted to indicate(More)
We studied orientation selectivity in V1 of alert monkeys and its relationship to other physiological parameters and to anatomical organization. Single neurons were stimulated with drifting bars or with sinusoidal gratings while compensating for eye position. Orientation selectivity based on spike counts was quantified by circular variance and by the(More)
We studied the spatial organization of receptive fields and the responses to gratings of neurons in parafoveal V1 of alert monkeys. Activating regions (ARs) of 228 cells were mapped with increment and decrement bars while compensating for fixational eye movements. For cells with two or more ARs, the overlap between ARs responsive to increments (INC) and ARs(More)
When two isoluminant colors alternate at frequencies > 10 Hz, we perceive only one fused color with a minimal sensation of brightness flicker. In spite of the perception of color fusion, color opponent (CO) cells at early stages of the visual pathway are known to respond to chromatic flicker at frequencies far exceeding the perceptual fusion frequency. To(More)