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Inaccurate description of mandibular rotation can have profound effects on orthognathic surgical treatment planning and surgical outcome, as well as affect the precision of appliances fabricated on articulators. Disagreement exists concerning movements of the condyle during jaw opening. Although mandibular function is often described as rotation around an(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the ultimate accuracy of bracket placement in labial vs lingual systems and in direct vs indirect bonding techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty pretreatment dental casts of 20 subjects were selected. For each dental cast, four types of bracket placement were compared: labial direct (LbD), labial indirect (LbI), lingual direct (LgD),(More)
Current concepts of clinical orthodontic tooth movement are misleading. Traditionally, these have been described as dependent on force levels and being tipping/bodily in nature. The following is a reevaluation of the relationships between tooth movement and orthodontic mechanotherapy not usually considered when analyzing tooth movement clinically. It is our(More)
The utility arch is a two-couple intrusion arch wire used for control of anterior deep overbite. It is similar to a one-couple intrusion arch in that it is commonly made with rectangular wire, attached to the teeth only at the molars and the incisors and is activated for incisor intrusion by a molar tip back bend. It differs from a one-couple intrusion arch(More)
All force systems applied to a tooth are composed of either single forces and/or couples. The application of a force through the center of resistance of a tooth will result in translation of the tooth. The application of a force to act at points other than through the center of resistance of a tooth will produce different tendencies for rotation. Tooth(More)
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