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NATURE REVIEWS | NEUROSCIENCE VOLUME 4 | APRIL 2003 | 299 The era of growth factor research began fifty years ago with the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). Since then, the momentum to study the NGF — or neurotrophin — family has never abated because of their continuous capacity to provide new insights into neural function; the influence of(More)
Profound neuronal dysfunction in the entorhinal cortex contributes to early loss of short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Here we show broad neuroprotective effects of entorhinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) administration in several animal models of Alzheimer's disease, with extension of therapeutic benefits into the degenerating(More)
Tissue injury generates endogenous factors that heighten our sense of pain by increasing the response of sensory nerve endings to noxious stimuli. Bradykinin and nerve growth factor (NGF) are two such pro-algesic agents that activate G-protein-coupled (BK2) and tyrosine kinase (TrkA) receptors, respectively, to stimulate phospholipase C (PLC) signalling(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) interacts with two different low-affinity receptors that can be distinguished by affinity crosslinking. Reconstitution experiments by membrane fusion and transient transfection into heterologous cells indicate that high-affinity NGF binding requires coexpression and binding to both the low-affinity NGF receptor and the tyrosine(More)
The neurotrophin family of survival factors is distinguished by a unique receptor-signaling system that is composed of two transmembrane receptor proteins. Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NT-4/5 share similar protein structures and biological functions and interact with two different types of(More)
Schizophrenia is a debilitating syndrome with high heritability. Genomic studies reveal more than a hundred genetic variants, largely nonspecific and of small effect size, and not accounting for its high heritability. De novo mutations are one mechanism whereby disease related alleles may be introduced into the population, although these have not been(More)
Excessive glucocorticoid exposure during chronic stress causes synapse loss and learning impairment. Under normal physiological conditions, glucocorticoid activity oscillates in synchrony with the circadian rhythm. Whether and how endogenous glucocorticoid oscillations modulate synaptic plasticity and learning is unknown. Here we show that circadian(More)
BACKGROUND Rare gene variants are important sources of schizophrenia vulnerability that likely interact with polygenic susceptibility loci. This study examined if novel or rare missense coding variants in any of four different signaling genes in sporadic schizophrenia cases were associated with clinical phenotypes in an exceptionally well-characterized(More)
The refinement of neural circuits during development depends on a dynamic process of branching of axons and dendrites that leads to synapse formation and connectivity. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the outgrowth and activity-dependent remodeling of axonal arbors in vivo. However, the mechanisms that translate(More)
BDNF is produced from many transcripts that display distinct subcellular localization, suggesting that spatially restricted effects occur as a function of genetic and physiological regulation. Different BDNF 5' splice variants give a restricted localization in the cell body or the proximal and distal compartments of dendrites; however, the functional(More)