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BACKGROUND In utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may contribute to testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a proposed constellation of increasingly common male reproductive tract abnormalities (including hypospadias, cryptorchidism, hypospermatogenesis, and testicular cancer). Male rats exposed in utero to certain phthalate plasticizers exhibit(More)
Sertoli cells are essential for testicular germ cell maintenance and survival. We made the unexpected observation that x-radiation (x-ray)-induced germ cell loss is attenuated by co-exposure with the Sertoli cell toxicant 2,5-hexanedione (HD). The mechanisms underlying this attenuation of germ cell apoptosis with reduced Sertoli cell support are unknown.(More)
Germ cell apoptosis directly induced by x-radiation (x-ray) exposure is stage specific, with a higher incidence in stage II/III seminiferous tubules. A priming exposure to the Sertoli cell toxicant 2,5-hexanedione (HD) results in a marked reduction in x-ray-induced germ cell apoptosis in these affected stages. Because of the stage specificity of these(More)
In the testis, developing germ cells are dependent on supportive physical and paracrine interactions with Sertoli cells. The intimate nature of this relationship is demonstrated by the fact that a toxic insult compromising the stability of Sertoli cells will have deleterious effects on the associated germ cells. 2,5-Hexanedione (HD) and x-radiation (x-ray)(More)
Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Rapid antibiotic administration is essential for the successful management of patients who have central lines and present with fever. We conducted an emergency department (ED) improvement initiative to deliver antibiotics to 90% of patients within 60 minutes and to minimize process variation. METHODS Our setting was an academic(More)
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