Learn More
In mammals, the melanopsin gene (Opn4) encodes a sensory photopigment that underpins newly discovered inner retinal photoreceptors. Since its first discovery in Xenopus laevis and subsequent description in humans and mice, melanopsin genes have been described in all vertebrate classes. Until now, all of these sequences have been considered representatives(More)
Photoreceptive, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) encode ambient light (irradiance) for the circadian clock, the pupillomotor system, and other influential behavioral/physiological responses. mRGCs are activated both by their intrinsic phototransduction cascade and by the rods and cones. However, the individual contribution of each(More)
Light-dependent release of dopamine (DA) in the retina is an important component of light-adaptation mechanisms. Melanopsin-containing inner retinal photoreceptors have been shown to make physical contacts with DA amacrine cells, and have been implicated in the regulation of the local retinal environment in both physiological and anatomical studies. Here we(More)
The mammalian visual system relies upon light detection by outer-retinal rod/cone photoreceptors and melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells. Gnat1(-/-);Cnga3(-/-);Opn4(-/-) mice lack critical elements of each of these photoreceptive mechanisms via targeted disruption of genes encoding rod α transducin (Gnat1); the cone-specific α3 cyclic nucleotide(More)
Retinal visual prostheses provide hope of restoring sight to patients suffering from retinal degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Retinal prostheses are used to electrically stimulate residual neurons that are spared in these diseases, namely the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), eliciting percepts of light termed(More)
Circadian clocks are thought to regulate retinal physiology in anticipation of the large variation in environmental irradiance associated with the earth's rotation upon its axis. In this review we discuss some of the rhythmic events that occur in the mammalian retina, and their consequences for retinal physiology. We also review methods of tracing retinal(More)
Attempts to understand circadian organization in the mammalian retina have concentrated increasingly on the mouse. However, rather little is known regarding circadian control of retinal light responses in this species. Here, the authors address this deficit using electroretinogram (ERG) recordings in C57BL/6 mice to evaluate rhythmicity in the wild-type(More)
PURPOSE In the mammalian retina, rod and cone pathways are fundamentally intertwined, with signals from both converging on cone bipolar cells to reach retinal ganglion cells. Psychophysical and electrophysiological data suggests that, as a consequence, rod signal transduction has a suppressive effect on the activity of cone pathways. It therefore might be(More)
Electrical stimulation of the retina following photoreceptor degeneration in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration has become a promising therapeutic strategy for the restoration of vision. Many retinal neurons remain functional following photoreceptor degeneration; however, the responses of the different classes of(More)
OBJECTIVE Visual prostheses currently in development aim to restore some form of vision to patients suffering from diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Most rely on electrically stimulating inner retinal cells via electrodes implanted on or near the retina, resulting in percepts of light termed 'phosphenes'. Activation(More)