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The basal ganglia are thought to be important in the selection of wanted and the suppression of unwanted motor patterns according to explicit rules (i.e. response inhibition). The subthalamic nucleus has been hypothesized to play a particularly critical role in this function. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in individuals with Parkinson's(More)
OBJECTIVE We developed a novel method to map behavioral effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) across a 3-dimensional brain region and to assign statistical significance after stringent type I error correction. This method was applied to behavioral changes in Parkinson disease (PD) induced by subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS to determine whether these(More)
Differences in the location of active contacts with respect to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may account for much variability in motor, psychiatric and cognitive responses to deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Because localization of STN based on hypointensity in T2-weighted MR images is unreliable and further limited by(More)
Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (PTD) may spread to multiple body parts, but the relative risk of spread by site of onset of dystonia has not been well characterized. We retrospectively identified 602 patients with PTD out of 1,500 dystonia patients in our electronic database and extracted age at onset, site of onset, family history, and spread.(More)
BACKGROUND Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the quantitative effects on motor behavior of unilateral STN DBS. METHODS In 52 PD subjects with STN DBS, we quantified in a double-blinded manner rigidity (n=42), bradykinesia (n=38), and(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) improves motor functioning but has variable effects on mood. Little is known about the relationship between electrode contact location and mood response. The authors identified the anatomical location of electrode contacts and measured mood response to stimulation with(More)
BACKGROUND Sequence variants in coding and noncoding regions of THAP1 have been associated with primary dystonia. METHODS In this study, 1,446 Caucasian subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia and 1,520 controls were genotyped for a variant located in the 5'-untranslated region of THAP1 (c.-237_236GA>TT). RESULTS Minor allele frequencies were(More)
OBJECTIVE Molecular imaging and clinical endpoints are frequently discordant in Parkinson disease clinical trials, raising questions about validity of these imaging measures to reflect disease severity. We compared striatal uptake for 3 positron emission tomography (PET) tracers with in vitro measures of nigral cell counts and striatal dopamine in(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the efficacy of the potent antioxidant C3 to salvage nigrostriatal neuronal function after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure in nonhuman primates. C3 is a first-in-class functionalized water-soluble fullerene that reduces oxygen radical species associated with neurodegeneration in in vitro studies. However,(More)
Dystonia is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by repetitive patterned or sustained muscle contractions causing twisting or abnormal postures. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways contribute to the pathophysiology of dystonia. In particular, dysfunction of D2-like receptors that mediate function of the(More)