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The basal ganglia are thought to be important in the selection of wanted and the suppression of unwanted motor patterns according to explicit rules (i.e. response inhibition). The subthalamic nucleus has been hypothesized to play a particularly critical role in this function. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in individuals with Parkinson's(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated(More)
BACKGROUND Although deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) improves motor function, it has variable effects on working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the neural correlates of STN DBS-induced variability in cognitive performance. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function, including gait and stability, in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) but differences in DBS contact locations within the STN may contribute to variability in the degree of improvement. Based on anatomical connectivity, dorsal STN may be preferentially involved(More)
Apathy, primarily defined as a lack of motivation, commonly occurs in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Although dysfunction of basal ganglia pathways may contribute to apathy, the role of dopamine remains largely unknown. We investigated the role of dopaminergic pathways in the manifestation of apathetic behaviors by measuring the effects of the(More)
Differences in the location of active contacts with respect to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may account for much variability in motor, psychiatric and cognitive responses to deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Because localization of STN based on hypointensity in T2-weighted MR images is unreliable and further limited by(More)
BACKGROUND THAP1 encodes a transcription factor (THAP1) that harbors an atypical zinc finger domain and regulates cell proliferation. An exon 2 insertion/deletion frameshift mutation in THAP1 is responsible for DYT6 dystonia in Amish-Mennonites. Subsequent screening efforts in familial, mainly early-onset, primary dystonia identified additional THAP1(More)
Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) can reduce working memory while improving motor function in Parkinson disease (PD), but findings are variable. One possible explanation for this variability is that the effects of bilateral STN DBS on working memory function depend in part on functional or disease asymmetry. The goal of this(More)
OBJECTIVE We developed a novel method to map behavioral effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) across a 3-dimensional brain region and to assign statistical significance after stringent type I error correction. This method was applied to behavioral changes in Parkinson disease (PD) induced by subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS to determine whether these(More)
BACKGROUND Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the quantitative effects on motor behavior of unilateral STN DBS. METHODS In 52 PD subjects with STN DBS, we quantified in a double-blinded manner rigidity (n=42), bradykinesia (n=38), and(More)