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The basal ganglia are thought to be important in the selection of wanted and the suppression of unwanted motor patterns according to explicit rules (i.e. response inhibition). The subthalamic nucleus has been hypothesized to play a particularly critical role in this function. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in individuals with Parkinson's(More)
Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) can reduce working memory while improving motor function in Parkinson disease (PD), but findings are variable. One possible explanation for this variability is that the effects of bilateral STN DBS on working memory function depend in part on functional or disease asymmetry. The goal of this(More)
BACKGROUND Although deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) improves motor function, it has variable effects on working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the neural correlates of STN DBS-induced variability in cognitive performance. METHODS We(More)
Apathy, primarily defined as a lack of motivation, commonly occurs in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Although dysfunction of basal ganglia pathways may contribute to apathy, the role of dopamine remains largely unknown. We investigated the role of dopaminergic pathways in the manifestation of apathetic behaviors by measuring the effects of the(More)
OBJECTIVE We developed a novel method to map behavioral effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) across a 3-dimensional brain region and to assign statistical significance after stringent type I error correction. This method was applied to behavioral changes in Parkinson disease (PD) induced by subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS to determine whether these(More)
BACKGROUND Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the quantitative effects on motor behavior of unilateral STN DBS. METHODS In 52 PD subjects with STN DBS, we quantified in a double-blinded manner rigidity (n=42), bradykinesia (n=38), and(More)
Dystonia is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by repetitive patterned or sustained muscle contractions causing twisting or abnormal postures. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways contribute to the pathophysiology of dystonia. In particular, dysfunction of D2-like receptors that mediate function of the(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) improves motor functioning but has variable effects on mood. Little is known about the relationship between electrode contact location and mood response. The authors identified the anatomical location of electrode contacts and measured mood response to stimulation with(More)
Differences in the location of active contacts with respect to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may account for much variability in motor, psychiatric and cognitive responses to deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Because localization of STN based on hypointensity in T2-weighted MR images is unreliable and further limited by(More)