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Purines can modify ciliary epithelial secretion of aqueous humor into the eye. The source of the purinergic agonists acting in the ciliary epithelium, as in many epithelial tissues, is unknown. We found that the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine stained rabbit and bovine ciliary epithelia but not the nerve fibers in the ciliary bodies. Cultured bovine(More)
Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A(1) adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human(More)
The volume of certain subpopulations of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells may modify outflow resistance of aqueous humor, thereby altering intraocular pressure. This study examines the contribution that Na+/H+, Cl-/HCO exchange, and K+-Cl- efflux mechanisms have on the volume of TM cells. Volume, Cl- currents, and intracellular Ca2+ activity of cultured human(More)
Electrophysiologic and volumetric evidence link the swelling-activated Cl- channels [gCl(Vol)] of nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells with the Cl(-)-channel/Cl(-)-channel regulator protein pICln. However, inhibitors (verapamil and dideoxyforskolin) of another Cl- channel/regulator (MDR1) have been found to inhibit the volume-activated transport(More)
The only effective intervention to slow onset and progression of glaucomatous blindness is to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Among other modulators, adenosine receptors (ARs) exert complex regulation of IOP. Agonists of A(3)ARs in the ciliary epithelium activate Cl(-) channels, favoring increased formation of aqueous humor and elevated IOP. In contrast,(More)
Swelling activates and protein kinase C (PKC) downregulates Cl- channels in cultured nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. We now report that the PKC inhibitor staurosporine upregulates whole cell Cl- currents isosmotically. The kinetics and current-voltage relationship are similar to those of volume-activated Cl- channels of these cells. These(More)
PURPOSE To test the putative role of A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) in modulating intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS IOP was monitored for up to 32 minutes in A3-knockout (A3AR-/-) and A3AR+/+ control mice by the servo-null approach. The IOP responses to adenosine, A3AR agonists and A3AR antagonists were studied singly or in combination in both strains.(More)
Vasopressin stimulates Na(+) transport across toad bladder largely or entirely by decreasing the resistance to Na(+) entry into the transporting epithelial cells. Therefore, the hormone should induce proportional changes in short circuit current (I S ) and tissue conductance; the ratio of these changes should equal the driving force (E Na) of the Na(+)(More)
1. Glaucoma is a worldwide disease affecting approximately 1-2% of the population aged over 35 years in industrial countries and is a major cause of blindness. 2. Glaucoma is usually associated with an increased intraocular pressure reflecting an imbalance between the rate of production of fluid (the aqueous humor) by the ciliary epithelial cells and its(More)